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Modern Education
Reference:

Integration of school and university resources in the training of future defectologists

Tishina Liudmila Aleksandrovna

PhD in Pedagogy

Docent, Head of the department of Special (Defectological) Education, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education

127051, Russia, g. Moscow, ul. Sretenka, 29

tishinala@mgppu.ru
Other publications by this author
 

 
Danilova Aleksandra Mikhailovna

PhD in Pedagogy

Docent, the department of Special (Defectological) Education, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education

127051, Russia, g. Moscow, ul. Sretenka,, 29

danilovaam@mgppu.ru
Other publications by this author
 

 
Podvalnaya Elena Vladimirovna

PhD in Pedagogy

Docent, the department of Special (Defectological) Education, Moscow State University of Psychology and Education

127051, Russia, g. Moscow, ul. Sretenka, 29

Heliopile@yandex.ru
Other publications by this author
 

 
Lebedeva Anna Vasilevna

PhD in Psychology

Acting Director, Special (Correctional) Public Boarding School No.52

125040, Russia, g. Moscow, ul. Raskovoi, 20-a

LebedevaAV2@edu.mos.ru
Other publications by this author
 

 

DOI:

10.25136/2409-8736.2022.2.35199

EDN:

WTYFYI

Received:

09-03-2021


Published:

05-07-2022


Abstract: Subject of research: the article contains theoretical and practical material about one of the acute problems of higher defectological education – the quality of training of young specialists coming to a modern school to work with students with disabilities. Method, methodology of research: the paper considers a practice-oriented approach to the university training of students-defectologists as one of the ways to improve the quality of professional training, which involves expanding the scope of cooperation of higher education institutions with general education organizations, integrating the resources available to them for the formation of professional competencies of future defectologists. The joint work of higher education organizations and general education institutions ensures an increase in the level of training of students-defectologists according to modern practice requirements, and the school gives the opportunity in the future to get a young specialist, motivated, involved in solving the problems of the modern education system. The novelty of the research: the experience of interaction between a higher education institution and an educational organization carrying out educational activities according to programs adapted for students with disabilities in the field of training future defectologists is analyzed and summarized. The potential and forms of such interaction, its influence on the formation of professional competencies of special pedagogical personnel are revealed. Conclusions: the constructive interaction between the school and the higher educational institution, the joint solution of tasks for the training of future defectologists within the framework of a practice-oriented approach should be carried out in different directions, such as: organization of different types of practice; involvement in research activities of both students and school staff; analysis and generalization of scientific, practical and scientific-methodological experience of educational organizations.


Keywords:

professional standard, professional competencies, special defectological education, pedagogical support, psychological and pedagogical support, limited health opportunities, special educational needs, teacher-defectologist, speech therapist teacher, resource school

This article is automatically translated. You can find original text of the article here.

 

Introduction

Currently, each school must provide high-quality affordable education to all categories of students, among whom a certain percentage are children with special educational needs [1].  One of the important conditions for solving this problem is the personnel component. It is not so much about specialists with work experience, constantly improving their professional level, as about their future colleagues, today's undergraduate and graduate students. The issue of training specialists of the psychological and pedagogical support service in the higher education system seems to be very important, because the school quickly responds to the challenges and changes taking place in society, and the heads of educational organizations, as potential employers, are interested in highly professional personnel [2,3].

Traditionally, faculties and specialized departments of higher educational institutions are engaged in training teachers-defectologists and other specialists to carry out correctional work with children with disabilities (HIA) of different categories [4,5]. At the present stage, when the formation of the necessary professional competencies in the graduate is of particular importance, the training of defectological personnel should be based on the practical development of the necessary skills and abilities by students [6]. Undoubtedly, at present there are certain problems in the system of higher defectological education. One of the key problems is the lack of a professional standard "Teacher-defectologist (teacher-speech therapist, sign language teacher, oligophrenopedagogue, typhlopedagogue)". Due to the lack of a professional standard, universal and general professional competencies for the direction of training "Special (defectological) education" are focused on an enlarged group of specialties "Education and Pedagogical Sciences".

The purpose of the study:

With the introduction of the Federal State Educational Standard in 3++, there is a need to develop new curricula that provide optimal practice-oriented training of future personnel. The organization and implementation of such training is a difficult task.

The relevance of the development of technologies for practice-oriented training of speech pathologists (speech therapist, sign language teacher, oligophrenopedagogue, typhlopedagogue)" is due to the increased requirements for the level of teaching in the field of special education of students with disabilities, aimed at social, emotional, mental and physical development, training and education of students with special educational needs [7,8,9]:.

The duties of a modern teacher-defectologist include:

- designing a special educational environment that ensures the implementation of special educational needs for students with disabilities;

- diagnosis of the state of individual development and identification of cognitive, physical, social, behavioral, emotional features of the development of children with disabilities;

- development, design of adapted educational programs, definition of the content and selection of technologies for conducting scheduled and extracurricular activities that correspond to the age and psychological and pedagogical characteristics of students with disabilities;

- training of teachers (teachers, educators, teachers of additional education) in the conditions of inclusive education to use special (correctional) techniques or individual methods of correctional and pedagogical work corresponding to the level of development and needs of students with disabilities;

- development of individual development programs that ensure the formation of the emotional-volitional sphere, sensory and perceptual-motor functions, speech, cognitive activity, etc.;

- formation of socially significant behavioral models in students with disabilities in the context of various communicative approaches: "child-child", "child - familiar adult", "child-unfamiliar adult";

- possession of special (correctional) methods of teaching academic subjects;

- formation of social and household skills and self-service skills of students with disabilities;

- the use of special technical means of training, information and communication technologies that ensure an increase in the efficiency and accessibility of education for students with special educational needs [10];

- formation of students' confidence in their own capabilities to ensure the processes of self-knowledge and self-realization;

- consultations with all participants of the educational process on the issues of education, upbringing, development of students with disabilities;

- preparation and maintenance of necessary documentation (diagnostic cards, examination protocols, individual development programs, comprehensive psychological and pedagogical characteristics for students, reports, programs, analytical certificates, etc.);

- monitoring to assess the individual achievements of each student.

Materials and methods of research:

During the development of academic discipline programs, it is important to implement a practice-oriented approach, taking into account the actual content of the course and relying on the main labor functions disclosed in the professional standard of the teacher (training, education, development). The approval of the professional standard of a speech pathologist (speech therapist, sign language teacher, oligophrenopedagogue, typhlopedagogue) should contribute to the specification of the functional responsibilities of a bachelor's degree graduate in the direction of "Special (defectological) education" [11, 12]. Currently, in the list of special conditions for students with disabilities to receive education, the activities of a speech pathologist (speech therapist, sign language teacher, typhlopedagogue, oligophrenopedagogue), as well as a teacher-psychologist, are narrowed down to correctional pedagogical / psychocorrection activities in the form of group and individual classes, although it is well known that with many developmental disorders, training and education should to be carried out with the direct participation of the above-mentioned specialists, who not only know the psychophysical characteristics of children with disabilities, but also possess technologies, methods and techniques of working with them.

The implementation of the practice-oriented approach provides for the purposeful deepening and expansion of the interaction of higher education institutions with general education organizations, the pooling of available educational resources to solve problems related to the formation of professional competencies among students of speech pathologists [13-14].

Let's consider the experience of such interaction on the example of cooperation between the Federal State Budgetary Educational Institution of Higher Education "Moscow State Psychological and Pedagogical University" (MGPPU) and the State State Educational Institution of the city of Moscow "Special (correctional) boarding school No. 52" (GKOU SKOSHI No. 52).

The educational process at the Department of "Special (Defectological) Education" at the Moscow State Psychological and Pedagogical University is based on a combination of traditional and innovative technologies for teaching undergraduate students, taking into account the accumulated domestic and foreign experience to date.

The entire process of training future bachelors and masters in the direction of "Special (defectological) education" is focused on training highly qualified specialists who fully possess pedagogical technologies for correcting developmental disorders of children and adolescents with disabilities in the education, health and social sphere [15,16].

Taking into account the requirements of the Federal State Educational Standard in the areas of training 44.03.03 (bachelor's degree) and 44.04.03 (master's degree) "Special (defectological) education", the department has developed basic professional educational programs that ensure the formation of professional competencies in the framework of helping children and adolescents with speech disorders, intellectual disabilities, autism spectrum disorders, musculoskeletal disorders, hearing impairment. Special attention should be paid to the preparation of undergraduate students in the framework of the orientation "Education and upbringing of children and adolescents with disabilities" in the profiles "Sign language Pedagogy", "Pedagogical support for children with learning difficulties" and "Speech therapy".

In the process of training future teachers of sign language teachers, they master technologies, forms, methods, techniques and means of correctional and pedagogical assistance to students with hearing impairments of different age groups (starting with the system of early assistance, ending with the system of assistance to adults with hearing impairments), taking into account both traditional and innovative approaches [17,18].. Much attention is paid to familiarization with current technologies that are important for the successful professional activity of a sign language teacher. In particular, technologies of sign language teaching support for students after cochlear implantation, technologies of sign language teaching assistance to children with severe multiple developmental disorders, who have a deficit of auditory perception in the structure of the defect, have become in demand. For modern sign language teachers, competencies related to the ability to design and implement adapted basic educational programs for the education of students with hearing impairments, taking into account their age and nosological characteristics, are significant. The current situation in the education system obliges a specialist to be able to work both in the conditions of special (correctional) educational organizations and in an inclusive environment, in this regard, future teachers of sign language teachers master the appropriate technologies, methods and techniques of work, get practical experience in their application [19].

The content of the program "Pedagogical support for children with learning difficulties" is determined by the specificity of this particular category of students. As it is known, this group includes not only children and adolescents with special educational needs who have the conclusion of the PMPC, but also students at risk. Taking into account the special urgency of the problem of early support of children with disabilities, during the preparation of undergraduate students it is necessary to form systematic knowledge about technologies of correctional and pedagogical work with children of different ages [20].. Due to the polymorphism and variability of the group of students experiencing learning difficulties, a multidisciplinary approach plays a special role in the system of training specialists of the psychological and pedagogical support service. The studied disciplines are combined into modules that provide the development of clinical and psycholinguistic foundations of special education, methods of psychological and pedagogical diagnostics, technologies of psychological and pedagogical support for preschool and school-age children with disabilities, technologies for correcting developmental disorders in students with intellectual disabilities, sensory insufficiency, motor disorders, autism spectrum disorders, severe and multiple developmental disorders; undoubtedly, one of the important aspects of the training of a future defectologist is the issues of program and methodological support of his professional activity.

Currently, the conditions for the design, organization, implementation and maintenance of the educational process in the conditions of inclusion and special (correctional) educational institutions remain uncertain, since it is clear that these reformatting models cannot be identical, since the resources of these organizations are different, and priority accents are placed differently in these organizations [21]. In our opinion, it is necessary to define the main strategic objectives for inclusive and special education, since an increasing number of real effective practices are reduced to the creation and implementation of a model of special (correctional) education in conditions of inclusion (separate buildings in the structure of organizations for groups and classes of compensating orientation, an increase in the number of staff units in such a system, the introduction of special (correctional) frontal classes /lessons according to the work programs of specific educational organizations at the expense of hours of additional education or individual forms of work, etc.). This state of affairs is understandable, since there is nothing significantly new in the models of inclusive education from the point of view of technologies for working with students with disabilities, and borrowed technologies in other conditions of application do not give the expected positive effect.

The differentiation of the content of programs actively discussed at the present stage is not a new strategic direction in the development of special education. Actually, the FGOS of NOO of students with disabilities, FGOS of students with mental retardation (intellectual disabilities) are based on the principles of a differentiated approach and represent several variants of AOOP (from 2 to 4 for each category of students with disabilities). In addition, for students with mental retardation, the PRAOOPS in academic disciplines suggest further differentiation with the allocation of variants of program material for students with minimal and sufficient levels of mastery of it.

For undergraduate students mastering the specifics of the professional activity of a speech therapist, the issues of high-quality and effective provision of correctional and pedagogical assistance to students not only with primary speech pathology, but also with other developmental disorders are extremely acute today [22]. In the system of inclusive modern education, a speech therapist works not only with the traditional age category of students (preschoolers and younger schoolchildren), but also with teenage schoolchildren who, according to the recommendations indicated in the conclusion of the PMPC, are shown speech therapy assistance. In this regard, the range of professional competencies of a speech therapist teacher should be significantly expanded from the well-known and understandable issues of correction of oral speech disorders in students with phonetic and phonemic underdevelopment and general speech underdevelopment to the possession of technologies for correction of written speech disorders (dysgraphy, dyslexia, dysorphography) at different stages of training, dyscalculia, formation of coherent written speech, the development of verbal / nonverbal / alternative communication and many others in schoolchildren belonging to different nosological groups, not belonging to the category of children with severe speech disorders (autism spectrum disorders, mental retardation, mental retardation, severe and multiple developmental disorders, etc.).

In the process of studying, a defectologist student develops a number of important professional competencies, among them such as:

- the ability to carry out psychological and pedagogical examination in order to identify individual development characteristics and special educational needs of students with disabilities for the development and implementation of AOP;

- the ability to design AOP based on federal state educational standards, taking into account age, individual psychophysical characteristics and special educational needs of students with disabilities;

- the ability to organize an educational and correctional and developmental process for students with disabilities in organizations of the education, health and social services system;

- the ability to carry out preventive measures to prevent developmental disorders in students with disabilities [23].

As an integral part of the professional development of a specialist and his theoretical and methodological training in the learning process, students master:

- specific knowledge and skills in the field of age, individual psychophysical characteristics and special educational needs of students with disabilities of different nosological groups;

- principles and content of psychological and pedagogical examination;

- traditional and innovative technologies and tools for diagnostics and evaluation of results;

- the structure and content of AOOP, the requirements for its development taking into account age, individual psychophysical characteristics and special educational needs of students with disabilities, the planned results of the development of AOOP and technology for assessing the achievements of children with disabilities;

- methodological foundations of the organization, content, forms, methods and means of educational and correctional and developmental process for students with disabilities;

- criteria for evaluating and self-evaluating the results of pedagogical activity;

- methods, methods and techniques of constructive interaction with participants of the educational process in solving standard and non-standard professional tasks;

- features of the implementation of an individually differentiated approach to the prevention of developmental disorders of students with disabilities;

- features of the use of modern tools for the effective organization of distance learning of schoolchildren with disabilities of different nosological groups.

One of the most important components of the educational process is practice, which, being an obligatory part of the main educational program, connects the theoretical and practical training of students of speech pathologists [24]. When organizing and conducting practical training, the school becomes a base platform where students not only get the opportunity to get acquainted with the experience of the best teaching staff, but also learn to apply the knowledge and skills acquired during lectures and seminars in the direct performance of professional actions, in the course of solving practical professional tasks. Students who master the basic professional educational program in the profiles "Sign language Pedagogy", "Pedagogical support for children with learning difficulties", "Speech therapy" at the department "Special (defectological) education" have an excellent opportunity to master the basics of their future profession on the basis of the State State Educational Institution of the city of Moscow "Special (correctional) general education boarding school No. 52". This educational institution was not chosen by chance to conduct the practice of MGPPU students. Firstly, the boarding school is a participant in the city projects "Resource School - the territory of success for everyone", "Hospitable School"; secondly, most teachers have the highest qualification category and have successfully passed the diagnostic measures of the Moscow Center for Education Quality. In addition, teachers, educators and specialists of the State Educational Institution SKOSHI No. 52 are active participants in professional competitions, seminars, round tables, grantees who have made a significant contribution to the development of the Moscow Electronic School project.

The necessary conditions for the education of hearing-impaired, late-deaf, cochlear implanted children, children with intellectual disabilities, mental retardation, autism spectrum disorders have been created in the State Educational Institution SKOSHI No. 52. Experienced specialists work with students: sign language teachers, speech pathologists, psychologists, speech therapists, tutors, social educators, subject teachers, educators. According to the decision of the school psychological and pedagogical council, the rates of a sign language interpreter and an assistant have been introduced into the staffing of an educational organization. The duties of the sign language interpreter include organizing communication between the staff of the educational organization with the deaf parents of students, as well as accompanying school-wide events during which information is broadcast through the Russian sign language. Assistants provide support for students with disabilities in an educational organization, assist in the child's compliance with sanitary and hygienic requirements.

All the buildings of the State Educational Institution SKOSHI No. 52, in which the educational process is carried out, have been brought into compliance with sanitary standards, conditions have been created in them that meet modern requirements for the educational environment. The correctional and developmental environment of an educational organization, created taking into account sanitary and hygienic and other requirements, takes into account the special educational needs of hearing-impaired students. Information boards with a running line, as well as information terminals help schoolchildren and school visitors with hearing loss navigate the premises, get up-to-date information about the educational process. For the same purposes, a sign system is widely used at school, including a variety of tables, stickers, etc. Classrooms and classrooms of defectologists, equipped with both traditional tools for conducting educational, diagnostic, correctional, developmental, advisory work, and modern technical training tools, including interactive whiteboards, allow you to provide all the range of necessary educational and correctional services. In a boarding school, a prerequisite for the organization of a student's workplace is the arrangement of desks in a semicircle in classrooms so that children can always keep the teacher in sight, including seeing his face, articulation, hand movements, be able to perceive information audibly and by ear, see the background behind the teacher. For students with intellectual disabilities, zoning of classrooms is provided for the purpose of organizing various forms of classroom and extracurricular activities, taking into account the special educational needs of this nosological group. When organizing an educational place, the possibilities and features of the child's motor skills, perception, attention, and memory are taken into account. To create optimal learning conditions, training places are organized for both individual and group forms of work. The educational institution uses special modern textbooks and teaching aids for children with mild to moderate mental retardation. Classrooms are equipped with interactive whiteboards and personal laptops, which allows teachers to use the content of the Russian and Moscow Electronic School and their own author's developments for conducting lessons and correctional and developmental classes.

Taking into account the recommendations of the CPMPK, adapted basic general education programs that determine the content and organization of educational activities have been developed and implemented for students of the State Educational Institution SKOSHI No. 52.

During the internship, students have the opportunity to get acquainted in detail with the specifics of the organization of educational and correctional-developmental processes, with their personnel and material and technical equipment, gradually become involved in the process of correctional and pedagogical activity, moving from purposeful observation to active participation in it.

On the basis of the school, practices are implemented: educational, industrial and pre-graduate. Already in the first semester, first-year students begin to master the profession through familiarity with the correctional and pedagogical process during the educational practice. This type of practice gives students the opportunity to learn the specifics of the work of an educational organization in which children with disabilities study. Trainees not only get acquainted with the contingent of students, with their psychophysical development features, but also learn to identify their special educational needs, to understand what the conditions of their training and upbringing should be. Students attend open lessons of school teachers, correctional classes of speech pathologists (sign language teachers, speech therapists, oligophrenopedagogues). This work allows first- and second-year students to successfully link theoretical material with practical observations, realize their own deficits and build an individual educational trajectory. Defectology students do not just attend open lessons and classes during practice and observe children with disabilities, they get the opportunity to get involved in the life of a modern school, become direct participants in all activities of an educational organization, including citywide, regional and all-Russian projects.

Experienced teachers, members of the school psychological and pedagogical council act as the heads of pedagogical practice from the State Educational Institution SKOSHI No. 52. Members of the administrative and management team of the educational institution organize the entire process of interaction of specialists and teachers with groups of students, provide the necessary information about the activities of the school, form a schedule, assign trainees to classes, appoint responsible specialists, and also participate in checking the reporting documentation on practice. All teachers of the school approach this type of work responsibly, realizing that they are mentors for each student. The administration of the State Educational Institution SKOSHI No. 52, together with the staff of the department, conducts targeted training of teaching staff for mentoring activities. In this regard, organizational and pedagogical conditions (meaningful, diagnostic and reflexive) were determined to ensure the professional development of the future teacher. Mentoring in this context is considered as a promising educational technology that allows you to transfer knowledge, form the necessary skills in the process of students' practical training. So, in the course of interaction with a mentor, students get an invaluable opportunity to learn methods and techniques for diagnosing impaired development, to master technologies for correcting and preventing developmental disabilities. An experienced mentor transmits traditional educational and correctional-developmental technologies to his wards, as well as introduces new innovative approaches to examining a child, accompanying him in the educational process. In practice, it shows how, when building an individual educational route, the data obtained during the psychological and pedagogical examination on the special educational needs and opportunities of the student should be used.

In working with undergraduate students, teachers-mentors use forms of frontal and subgroup work: pedagogical workshops, master classes, work in creative groups, problem-business and reflexive role-playing games. Students have the opportunity, together with a mentor, to analyze the solution of the goals and objectives set at the lesson / lesson; discuss what happened, what caused difficulties and why; what needs to be changed when preparing and conducting the next lesson / lesson.

Practical classes and seminars when working with undergraduate students are used to develop skills for solving various problematic problems that defectologists may face in their professional activities when working with students with disabilities of different nosological groups.

During the seminar sessions, students receive information about the resources of the Moscow education system. Representatives of the administrative and management team draw students' attention to the openness of the information environment of the state educational organization operating on the territory of the city of Moscow. Students get acquainted with the typical content of the school's website, with its filling system, with the process of updating it, analyze the existing structural elements of the site, including those developed for parents of students of an educational organization.

As part of their independent work, students have the opportunity to analyze sections of the websites of correctional schools and schools included in the Resource School project, get acquainted with regulatory documents, plans, schedules and work experience of educational organizations that have created conditions for teaching children with disabilities. In practical classes, the attention of future teachers is focused on not missing the main thing in the Moscow education system, to be aware of important events of educational organizations - these tasks are solved by the information portal "School of the Big City", where all information about the activities of the capital's schools is collected.

In the process of conducting joint seminars, round tables, open days, participation in the work of the psychological and pedagogical council, future bachelors master the methods and means of organizing the educational and correctional and developmental process for students with disabilities, the skills of constructive interaction with all participants in the educational process. It should be noted that every specialist working in an educational organization with children with special educational needs must have professional competencies related to maintaining a variety of professional documentation (analysis, design, development, correction, etc.). Based on the diagnosis, the student learns to make a psychological and pedagogical characteristic that meets modern requirements for this type of documentation, to plan an individual educational route, also masters the skills of designing AOP, a special individual development program (SIPR), comprehends the technology of developing a long-term work plan of a teacher-defectologist, lesson plans and lesson notes (classes). Special attention is paid to the formation of competencies in the field of working with an electronic journal/diary.

One of the requirements of the time for a modern specialist is the presence of a creative approach in professional activity. In this regard, the higher school has an important task – to promote the development of creative abilities of the individual, to help the student realize his potential in changing socio-economic conditions [25]. The specialists of the school and the curators of the practice from the department are training future specialists in the field of effective use of IT technologies and services to improve the quality of education of children with hearing impairment, intellectual disability. Students acquire skills of working with the resources of the Moscow Electronic School platform (MES), get acquainted with simple (atomic) educational materials, learn to create elements of the content of the lesson script on the subject themselves (text blocks, test tasks, images, videos, audio recordings, etc.) that meet the technical and methodological requirements of the Department of Information Technology of the City of Moscow and the Department of education and science of the city of Moscow. Future speech therapists, speech pathologists analyze lesson scenarios published in the MES on various subjects of the curriculum, together with mentors adapt the proposed material for teaching students with sensory and intellectual disabilities. Independently and with mentors, they study electronic textbooks (collections of educational materials consisting of texts, images, exercises, tests) used by teachers and children when getting acquainted with the educational material, its generalization, fixing the whole course on a particular academic subject. Undoubtedly, a good knowledge of the technologies of working with electronic educational resources, which form the basis of the MES, is important for the future teacher of Moscow.

The effective allocation of time allocated for practice allows students not only to participate in activities organized within the framework of educational activities and remedial classes, but also to become active participants in extracurricular activities (contests, quizzes, concerts, theater productions, excursions, sports and recreation events), which makes it possible to master the relevant competencies. A special area of work with students mastering defectological specialties is their introduction into the system of educational work. The upbringing of children with disabilities, being one of the priority areas in the work of a defectologist, has its own specifics due to the cognitive and physical characteristics of this category of students. In this regard, it is important for future specialists to comprehend the theoretical and practical aspects of educational activities with a child with special educational needs during classroom classes under the guidance of a high school teacher. At the same time, during the practice conducted on the basis of the State Educational Institution SKOSHI No. 52, undergraduate students get the opportunity to engage in educational work with the class, becoming assistants to the class teacher in organizing the life of the class team, in preparing and conducting various educational activities.

In practice, the first meeting of students with students of the school is planned and conducted under the guidance of a university teacher. With its help, student trainees learn to determine the purpose and educational objectives of the lesson / lesson, to conduct an initial conversation with pupils. The teacher helps students in the course of observing the educational process to learn how to determine the forms, methods, techniques and means of educational work with children and adolescents with disabilities.

The class teacher helps students to establish contact with children, introduces them to examples of collective creative activity of schoolchildren, its features caused by age and psychological and pedagogical developmental disorders of students, with the directions of project activities in which children of this class participate. Students learn to conduct thematic class hours, organize collective creative activities, together with a teacher-psychologist assigned to the class, prepare and conduct psychological and pedagogical diagnostics.

Much attention is paid to the organization and conduct of research work in the preparation of students-defectologists. On the one hand, research activity is an obligatory part of the educational process for every MSPPU student, on the other hand, the degree of interest and involvement of students in this field of activity certainly varies: from the formal fulfillment of the minimum stipulated by the program to the conscious position of a young scientist who takes an active part in the research work of students (search their problems, participation in research on a topic of interest, writing articles and theses, participation in scientific seminars and conferences, etc.). The quality of students' research work, of course, largely depends on the thoughtful and purposeful work of the teachers of the department. The time factor is of great importance: how early the student begins his research, the timeliness and regularity of feedback in the dyad "student-supervisor", etc. For students engaged in research work, the school becomes an experimental platform on which they conduct an experiment (ascertaining, forming, control) - the basis for writing term papers and final qualifying works. The administrative team, specialists of the school psychological and pedagogical council, chairmen of methodological associations help students to navigate the novelties of methodological literature, participate in the discussion of diagnostic tools in the process of collecting material for research work, technologies for conducting ascertaining and forming experiments, increase the motivation of future teachers, develop interest in the chosen profession. The Faculty comprehensively supports students' interest in research activities. So, teachers of departments welcome students to write scientific articles (independently or in co-authorship), appropriate scientific and methodological assistance is provided. Such scientific articles, as a rule, are a logical continuation of coursework or final qualifying papers, as well as the result of studying scientific issues that may interest students in mastering the disciplines of the professional cycle. Practical material for articles is often collected by the author also during a visit to an educational institution.

All of the above makes an invaluable contribution to the practice-oriented training of future sign language teachers, speech pathologists, speech therapists. Any events organized with the support of the school's management and specialists are an example of fruitful cooperation and constructive professional interaction, including in solving the problems of the capital's education.

The long–term productive interaction between the staff of the Department of "Special (defectological) education" of MGPPU and the staff of the State Educational Institution SKOSHI No. 52 is based on an understanding of the common task of educational organizations - the qualitative training of future defectologists. Both the school and the university should be interested in cooperation. For students and teachers of the department of GKOU SKOSHI No. 52 is not just a base of practice or a platform for conducting experimental research; cooperation with the school helps students of the university to better understand the current issues of the modern education system of persons with disabilities. Constructive relations with the school, which are being built on an ongoing basis, open up new prospects for the development of the system of training defectological personnel. The cooperation of the two pedagogical collectives is carried out through participation in scientific and practical seminars and scientific conferences, joint meetings of the staff of the department and the pedagogical councils of the school, speeches by university teachers at the methodological associations of the school, visits to master classes, open lessons / classes and events.

In 2020, Federal Law No. 273-FZ "On Education in the Russian Federation" was amended, thanks to which undergraduate students received the right to carry out both regular activities and extracurricular activities (to conduct classes in creative associations, clubs, sports sections, studios, etc.) until graduation from a higher educational institution. These changes make it possible for undergraduate students to accumulate professional experience even before receiving a diploma, and for an educational organization to prepare a specialist who knows and understands the specifics of working in certain conditions with a specific contingent of students, i.e. to prepare for themselves "their" specialist. We do not believe that this will somehow leave an imprint of "closeness", since any educational organization follows the principles of openness, attractiveness and accessibility of providing quality education for all categories of children.

Even during the study period, students of the bachelor's and master's degree of MGPPU get the opportunity to be employed at the State Educational Institution SKOSHI No. 52, and after graduation and obtaining a diploma of higher professional education, they remain to work at the school. We believe that this is an important indicator that supports the status of a reliable Moscow school.

Conclusion:

Of course, the integrative model of a school and a university goes far beyond the framework of one educational organization. If we talk about the basic organizations in which undergraduate and graduate students practice, then there are more than 100 of them at the Faculty of Clinical and Special Psychology (Figure 1).

Organizations for training,

industrial and pre-graduate practice

Organizations subordinate to  To the Department of Education and Science of the City of Moscow

 

74 %

Organizations subordinate to  To the Department of Health of the city of Moscow

 

 

17%

Organizations subordinate to  To the Department of Labor and Social Protection of the population of the city of Moscow

 

9%

 

Figure 1 – Distribution of basic organizations for practice (in %).

Students have a real opportunity not only to get acquainted with the system of organization and the content of the work of specialists of the psychological and pedagogical support service in various fields (education, healthcare, social sphere), but also to put into practice the mechanisms of real correctional assistance in matters of training, education, correction and development. Combining theoretical training in scientific-theoretical and scientific-methodological aspects with a practical component makes it possible to prepare a highly qualified specialist for a specific educational organization, taking into account its requests and available resources (Table 1). 

Table 1

Integration of city organizations and the Faculty of Clinical and Special Psychology in the training of specialists of the psychological and pedagogical support service (in %)

Criteria

2017-2018 academic year

2018-2019 academic year

2019-2020 academic year

Employment of graduates in organizations (practice bases)

 

8

 

16

 

25

Continuation of Master's degree programs implemented by the Faculty

 

17

 

26

 

34

Admission of employees of organizations (practice bases) to master's programs implemented by the faculty

 

3

 

6

 

6

Professional development of employees of organizations (practice bases) on programs implemented by the faculty

 

-

 

4

 

7

 

I would like to note that all graduates employed since 2018 continue to work (over 2 years) in organizations that are the base of practice,

Thus, we see an improvement in the quality of training of a future defectologist in the implementation of a model of practice-oriented vocational training, which involves constant constructive cooperation between a higher educational institution and a school. This approach makes it possible to grow an active, motivated young specialist who has direct practical experience working with children with disabilities, is ready to carry out correctional and pedagogical activities in the conditions of the modern metropolitan educational environment, has a need for further professional development, and is responsible for the future of the younger generation.

 

 

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