SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences - Philosophy



SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences
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Danilenko D.V. - Why Russians are so different? c. 1-35


Abstract: The author attempts to answer the question “Why Russians are so different?” form the sociopolitical and economic points of view. He advances the idea that the major role in formation of peculiarities of Russians’ identity was played by some cultural aspects of the pre-Communist era, but also the political institutions influence of the Soviet Union. The author compares distinctive traits of Russians’ identity with those of the people of developed countries. The author considers such topics of Russians’ cultural identity as: destruction of social capital under the Soviet Union and its influence upon the current social conditions; causes of the problems with establishment of democratic institutions, as well as protection of human rights; historical background of the economic development and influence of the legacy of the Communist regime upon current economic conditions.
Asadullaev I.K. - Not an a priori knowledge, but knowledge-faith: the world by Kant and Hegel c. 1-8


Abstract: The subject of this research is the projection of new concepts of philosophy into the borderline area of philosophy and physics, and astrophysics. The dark matter and dark energy have lately produced controversial discussions, but overall leave behind the key – the impossibility of attempts to discover phenomena and essence of new area of objective reality. The first glance at this dilemma begs the division of the universe into types of matter, principally knowable, and into types of matter that remain unknowable (perhaps yet?). These types of matter in one case are expounded by Hegel as a world of universal connection and knowability, and in another case as Kant’s thing in itself. Among the main conclusions is the position on existence of new categories of participation and non-participation, existence of one definiteness of a visible universe, as opposed to other worlds that each have their own definiteness. Correlation of philosophy and physics and astrophysics leads to the hypothesis on the difference between objective reality of existence of the world by Kant’s principles, and the world by the principles of Hegel’s philosophy.
Danilenko D.V. - The role of liberal values in secularization c. 1-17


Abstract: This article explores the role played by the liberal values within political secularization (secularization of political power), as well as secularization on individual level (erosion of the observation of religious practices, values, and beliefs). The role of socioeconomic and political factors in secularization such as capitalism, advancements of sciences, and Reformation is reconsidered in relation to the role of liberal values. The existing concepts of secularization are reinterpreted to integrate the factor of human rights and liberal values into this process. Historical and philosophical approaches to the subject of the study allow the author to discover substantial contradictions within social assignment of religion and liberal values, and to draw a conclusion that liberal values have played a crucial role in secularization.
Borisov S.V. - How to practice philosophy in the daily life c. 1-14


Abstract: This article is intended for those who would like to learn how to practice philosophy in everyday life to improve its quality, to make effective decisions, to establish communication skills, ability to find a peaceful solution to the conflict. Philosophical practice, philosophizing can be different. However, an effective guide for those who wish to take advantage of this form of practice, is not a “school” academic tradition, but philosophical issues from everyday life. The problem lies in the ability to raise these issues at the level of philosophical reflection and contemplation. Philosophical practice can be integrated into the everyday way of life and philosophizing can have practical significance. Philosophizing can carry out therapeutic function (psychological component) or developmental function (intellectual component); these functions complement each other.
Klimkov O. - The problem of knowledge of God in the mind of Gregory Palamas c. 1-8


Abstract: The object of this research is one of the most significant and topical problems of the hesychast polemic that took place in Byzantium of XIV century, namely the development and comprehension of the Orthodox theory of the knowledge of God in the concept of its chief representative Gregory Palamas. The subject of this research is a concrete historical discussion, which has formed and settled his views upon the role and place of philosophical knowledge within the religious doctrine of hesychasm. The author also examines the views of Palama’s opponent Varlaam, whose doctrine contains the features of intellectualism of ancient philosophy. Using the phenomenological-analytical method, the author studies the problem of Palamite gnoseology. The fundamental for Palama difference between the essence and energy of the mind as well as his teaching on theosis are subjected to analysis. The author underlines the close link between the gnoseological and anthropological problematic, as the possibility of the knowledge of God is put in direct relation to the means of human existence, which includes not only its intellectual and emotional spheres, but the corporeal practices as well. An observation is made on the dominance of existential approach over existential metaphysics in Palama’s concept.
Zholkov S. - Philosophical issues of pragmatic theories: genesis and architectonics, I c. 1-11


Abstract: The subject of this research is the real pragmatics, i.e. the goal-oriented activity of social subjects (individuals, human associations). The real pragmatics overall, in unity and interaction of the natural and humanitarian worlds, is an object of pragmatic theories. In the practical aspect, the actual goals of the analysis and management of complex systems and their systemic analysis in the combined natural science and socio-humanitarian component are in high demand. The article determines the requirements for the information base and architectonics of the pragmatic theory necessary for structuring a trustworthy scientific theory of real pragmatics. A comparative analysis with construction of “theoretic knowledge” offered by V. S. Stepin is conducted. The author formulates the general laws and requirements for the architectonics of the components of authentic and informative pragmatic theories. As a result of a careful comparative analysis, the author is first to demonstrate that the scheme of structuring substantial and provable pragmatic theories is fully compatible with the construct of the (post-nonclassical) “theoretical knowledge” of V. S. Stepin. The author also underlines that the proposed by V. S. Steping scheme of theoretical knowledge derives from not only the meticulously examined physical theories, but also the mathematical theories.   
Zholkov S. - Philosophical problems of pragmatic theories: genesis and architectonics, II c. 1-13


Abstract: The subject of this research is the real pragmatics, in other words, purposeful activity of social subjects (individuals, human associations). Real pragmatics overall, in unity and cohesion of the natural and human realms is the subject of pragmatic theories. In practical terms, the actual tasks for analysis and management of large systems and their systemic analysis in unity of natural scientific and socio-humanitarian component is the real need. The article determines the requirements to information base and architectonics of the pragmatic theory, essential for building a trustworthy scientific theory of real pragmatics. The comparative analysis with the construct of “theoretical knowledge” proposed by V. S. Stepin is conducted. The general laws and requirements to architectonics of veritable and substantive components of pragmatic theories are formulated. The conducted comparative analysis demonstrates that the pattern of structuring the fundamental and conclusive pragmatic theories is fully compatible with the construct of (post-nonclassical) “theoretical knowledge” of V. S. Stepin. The author also notes that the proposed by V. S. Stepin pattern of theoretical knowledge is based not only the comprehensively studied physical theories, but also the mathematical theories.
Voronov V. - Existential bases of human identity in the era of Gestell (based on a criticism and development of M. Heidegger's ideas) c. 1-8


Abstract: The article analyses the idea of existential bases of human identity in the context of technological challenges of modernity. Its temporality, ecstaticity, and connection of an individual being with being of Others are viewed as identity bases. Attention is paid to the existential meanings of mortality and temporality of the Other, expressed in ontological moods of pain and anxiety. These moods are defined as bases of authenticity in various socio-cultural identifications. The specifics of modernity are defined in line with M. Heidegger’s philosophy of technology, i.e. in domination of a particular way of being of humans – Gestell. Anthropological risks and challenges of modernity are shown as a possible en-framed attitude towards any self-identifications. In terms of theory and methods, the article is based on a criticism and development of M. Heidegger's ideas related to the project of existential analytics and philosophy of technology. The novelty of this research consists in an attempt to apply M. Heidegger’s theory and methods of philosophy to human identity, making it possible to view it from an existential standpoint and including an ontological view of the moods, not just related to one’s own mortality, but also mortality of the Other.
Litvyakova L.A. - Platos theory of Eros c. 1-4


Abstract: This article gives a remarkable interpretation of the concept of “Eros” proposed by ancient philosophy. Special attention is turned to Plato’s theory of Eros. The author reviews the theoretical aspect of Eros within the system of the general world order from the perspective of philosophical teachings. The mythology of Eros is being traced. Plato’s writings “Feast", "Liquide", "Phaedrus” are subjected to analysis. The article reveals the ambivalence of Eros as lyrics and epos as cosmos, as well as understanding of the creative Eros. The essence of Eros is presented as the foundation of comprehension of life, an indispensable attribute of human existence and its nature. The research employs general philosophical methods, such as the historical and analytical, which allow giving a broader perspective on the topic. The uniqueness of this study consists in disclosure of the concept of Eros as it is viewed by ancient philosophy, and namely by Plato, as the founder of the concept of Eros. The article provides the most comprehensive definition of Eros as a way to understand being and the fundamentals of human existence.
Gashkov S.A. - Subject and history: Castoriadis reasoning on modernity in the context of his philosophical polemics (Heidegger, Ricoeur, Habermas) c. 1-8


Abstract: The subject of this research is the historical-philosophical and polemical context of the reasoning on history of the French philosopher of Greek descent Cornelius Castoriadis (1922-1997). The philosopher structures a complex polemical model that sharply responses to all attempts to determine society, being, history, and human. Even the recognized philosophical figures of the XX century, such as M. Heidegger, P. Ricoeur, J. Haberma, who have no biased attitude on philosophical knowledge, appear to be subject to critical analysis.  The author applied intertextual, hermeneutic and dialogical methods leaning on the texts of the aforementioned authors, as well as the data of modern critical literature. The scientific novelty consists in attraction of the relatively unknown to the Russian audience historical-philosophical material, and an attempt to reproduce the polemics and debates that were held in French intellectual environment of the late XX century. At the same time, the author did not follow the goals of historical and biobibliographical description, but rather return to the origins of the philosophy and history and revival of philosophical reasoning on history based on the researched material, demonstration of complicated, aporetic, heterogeneous and heuristic nature of the relation between philosophy, social disciplines and humanities. The author concludes that we cannot speak of the poststructuralist philosophy of history; the work of Castoriadis mostly represents philosophical criticism of theoretical grounds of social disciplines and humanities, although in the context of philosophical thought, it acquires an independent scientific meaning. The author ubderlines that Castoriadis polemicized Heidegger's thought, especially in regard of Ancient Greek civilization; the limits of Castoriadis' thought, such as radical atheism, social monadism, refusal to think communication; the advantages of Castoriadis' thought of history, his multiculturalism, his claim to restore genuine philosophy and democracy, criticism of determinism, scientism, cultural egoism.
Krasikov V.I. - Anthropological background of vice c. 1-9


Abstract: This study is conducted this within the theoretical framework of philosophical anthropology and existential problems in modern philosophy. The discourse of philosophical anthropology seeks to decipher the basic codes of the biosocial nature of man in its formative influence on his consciousness and behavior. On the contrary, existential analysis tries to determine the conditions for successful resistance to the influence on the consciousness of numerous interventionists and the possibility of the formation of reasonable autonomy. Thus, this study seeks to find an acceptable balance in the use of methodological tools of philosophical anthropology and existential analysis in solving the problem of the mutual influence of bodily, social passions and consciousness. The article is devoted to an explanation of meanings of such human phenomenon as vice. The author strives to uncover the etymological and anthropological implication of this human given. He believes that the notions of "vice" and "virtue" are socially conditional. The nature of our desires is primary. Vice and virtue are flickering areas of the socially significant in these desires. They are contoured on intuitive-semantic quality and marked with labels of words. If the ego, the spirit lose their sovereignty then psychic and physiological element, biological fury come forth making of a human-being their prisoner. The harmony between two levels of existence in the human-being always is relative and transient. The author convinces that we should tolerably understand the nature of this human attribute and therefore we can humanize it.
.. - The phenomenon of spirit in philosophical understanding of man


: There is a widespread opinion that philosophical anthropology is a field of knowledge about the origin, history and content of culture. This statement is only partially true. Culture is demonstrative of a certain way of being. Many anthropologists and cultural scientists do not set themselves the task of finding out why man is as he is, what his existential reality is, or in what way his determined originality is manifested. Reduction of the whole problem of man to a description of culture would mean disregarding the principal side of the question: what determines the cultural essence of man? The integrity of philosophical anthropology distinguishes it from other disciplines that study man in one particular aspect. Philosophical anthropologists wish to grasp, at least, the wholeness of a person, his concrete I. Philosophical anthropology more decisively than, say, gestalt psychology finds in man configurations and behaviours that are impossible to split and put to the final analysis. Spirituality is undoubtedly among basic human existentials. The notion of spirit in philosophical anthropology has a long and peculiar history. Since time immemorial, freedom, reflection and spirit have been considered mans essential qualities. Spirit is mans highest ability that permits him to become a subject of meaning-setting, personal self-determination, conscious transformation of reality. We, people, are the present existence, consciousness in general and spirit, that is the idea-driven wholeness of comprehensible relationships in ourselves and in all that we have created, done and thought.
.., .. - Contra Descartes. Antecedents and Universality of Faith and Reason


: In this article we attempt to demonstrate the initial coherence of faith and reason that cannot exist one without the other. Faith cannot be without the perception of reason, reason is based on faith. We contemplate faith not only as a religion, but more broadly, as universal for human beings. It involves not only faith in God, the Koran, Bible or other kinds of Holy Scripts, but also faith in ideals, faith between people, states, faith in future, etc. Firstly, we concentrate on the primary universality, restricted coherence of these phenomena in the life of a human being and mankind. This has been considered a great deal; however, we are interested in the impossibility of the existence of faith without reason and reason without faith.When subjectivist, Berkley, states that only sensation exists, but not objects, he is positive about it, he believes in his primary cognition. Similarly, when dialectic materialists make claims about the objective existence of the world and objects, they have an absolute faith in their primary cognition. To prove this they use practice as a criterion of the realness of what they say. In their primary cognition they also believe, though absolutely, in the realness of this judgment. Primary cognition based on faith in the self, can be obvious, or latent, or unobvious in the form of absolute assurance. That is to say, faith, trust in the self, even in our own doubts, are primary cognition for a human being. Misfaith in the self, our own senses and judgments is based on primary trust-faith in the rightness of such an attitude to them. When Rene Descartes says: "cogito ergo sum" - "I think therefore I am ", from this epoch of new science and ever after "cogito" (think) it was believed the first reliable cognition (act of faith and mind) primary is his faith in the realness of thought, faith-cognition (initial act of mind). Often this is not acknowledged. Faith in the realness of thought, as an initial act of thought, precedes the thinking process or occurs at one time. However, if faith-cognition is concurrent, it still precedes by substance, if not by time. This logic was first introduced by Ibn Sina (Avicenna) in a different aspect.
.. - Apology Tolerance in the Contemporary Philosophy of Human


: Tolerance passive patience, attitude to another as a decent person. This is a deliberate suppression of feelings of rejection views of manners and habits of the other. An appeal to it was dictated by changes in a church, political and scientific life. The essence and validity of several philosophical positions in justifying the vital problem of tolerance is investigated: above all, tolerance stated by J. Locke and P. Bayle in XVII; an embodiment of the tolerance in the project of multiculturalism and its destiny; culture-centrist and naturalistic concepts. Postmodern deconstruction project as a critic of thinking patterns that leads to dogmatism and intolerance is analysed, and so is the interpretation of tolerance as equality conceptual projects and value systems underlying the different cultures. The different beliefs systems cannot communicate because of they are locked-in. According Derrida to E. Levinas the roots of violence in the 20 - th century are originated in philosophy from failure to respect the Other, and the domination of generalisation over individual and personal. The tolerance is needed because it is a virtue against fanaticism, sectarianism and authoritarianism (A. Comte-Sponville). Naturalistic project proposes to consider human only as a form of the biological life, and one should not oppose culture to biology, nature and wildness. When the human feels as a part of the living world, he ceases to be Aggressive? And he is more able to engage in a dialoque and interaction.
Danilenko D.V. - Humanism, punishment and surveillance. Criticism of M. Foucault's


Abstract: This article is devoted to philosophical research on the origins of modern state surveillance, punishment and, more generally, the evolution of modern criminal law. It is presented as a discussion between the author of this article and Michel Foucault. It develops the idea that humanism has played an important role in the softening of state-sanctioned punishment and in the development of state surveillance over the last 300 years. The article deals with the historical origins of the modern state and the evolution of its relations with the individual; the evolution of government functions; the evolution of criminal law; and human rights and freedoms. It contains a critique of Foucault’s analysis of the evolution of the modern system of criminal law and of his concept of surveillance.
.. - THE EIGHT CHALLENGE OF MILLENNIUM? EMPTINESS IS MATTER The hypothesis of incompleteness of the principle of conservation of mass and energy


: This article attempts to show incompleteness of the principle of conservation of mass and energy, on the basis of assumption of the recognition of two new for the science types of substance being of proposition and being of perception, based on the fact that emptiness is not nothingness (nothing), but something type of substance. The hypothesis proceeds also from the mutual transition of different types of matter: substances, fields and spaces, into one another in strictly defined conditions. We expect the recognition of emptiness as a type of matter to have far-reaching consequences for numerous sciences. Firstly, it legalizes in terms of natural scientific materialism, i.e. attaches legitimacy to the ideas of mass and energy extinction. This, however, does not mean transition of something into nothing, and by expanding conservation principle, we uphold the same position that matter does not disappear, but converses from one type into another emptiness. The recognition of emptiness by matter brings to the cardinal conclusions about the emergence of galaxies, black holes, stars and stellar substance from space (emptiness). The hypothesis of emergence of substance in the centre of galaxies receives another indirect confirmation.
.. - Lev Tolstoy: a Russian view of the world and man in it


: The subject of the article is to analyze the anthropological theme in the works of Russian writer Lev Tolstoy and give a characteristic of the Russian view of the world. Lev Tolstoys works give a researcher a unique opportunity to have an idea about Russian worldview. An artist of genius, tireless worker and searcher for the meaning of life, the count-mouzhik left to future generations innumerable richness of observations, thoughts, artistic topics and images. Due to their depth and versatility they have long become and continue to be a subject of philosophical analysis. The article discusses a number of important meanings and values of Russian worldview that Tolstoy examined. First of all, in is the meaning (to be more precise search for the meaning) of that which crowns human life. The theme of death and Russian people attitude to it was studied by the writer throughout his whole creative life. The author uses the method of hermeneutic analysis of the Russian writers texts. Secular and theological thought referring to evaluation of the fear of death has been compared. The articles novelty is in looking for that which can oppose death. Having discovered for himself that the fear of death can be overcome through love as the fullest manifestation of God, Tolstoy turned to its analysis and then to consideration of the other side of this human feeling, devoting a number of great philosophical and artistic works to examination of passion. Sin and repentance, crime and punishment in human and social life, moral and legal justice are another worldview component of Tolstoys creative work. The thinkers creative search has not been completed. But the very process is that most valuable heritage that he left to the reflecting descendants.
Klimkov O. - Russian medieval thought and Byzantine Hesychasm c. 9-16


Abstract: The object of this research is the influence of the Byzantine Hesychasm upon the formation and development of Russian medieval thought. The works of Simeon New Theologian and Gregory of Sinai made a significant contribution to the development of this spiritual movement, as well as to the further systematization and conceptual understanding of this doctrine in Byzantium and medieval Russia, influencing the formation of its religious-ritual and philosophical-theological culture. The main representatives of the Russian religious thought of this era are Nilus of Sora, Artemy Troitsky and Maximus the Greek. The author uses the historical-analytical and phenomenological methods, resorting, if necessary, to the method of comparative analysis and historical-philosophical reconstruction. The following are the main points of this research: a review of the ups and downs of "smart doing" in Russia; analysis of the continuity of Byzantine and Russian thought; a study of the spiritual specifics of the Russian Middle Ages; study of the problem of religious freedom and “self-rule” of a person; revealing the significance of the reception of Hesychastic ideas in Russian medieval thought.
Gashkov S.A. - Cornelius Castoriadis reforms the philosophy of history c. 14-22


Abstract: The subject of this research is the philosophical heritage of the prominent Greek-French philosopher, economist, and psychoanalyst Cornelius Castoriadis (1922-1997). The author gives particular attention to the plots of his works related to the problem of such philosophical interpretation of the historical process, in which context a human does not manifest as an alienated subject, but rather a conscious, creative being. Along the way, the philosopher faces Marxism, Sartre’s existentialism, and structuralism of Lévi-Strauss, subjecting them to critical analysis and defending similar principles, kindred to the Greek democratic traditions. Hi critically repels scientism, naturalism, individualism, Eurocentrism, functionalism, positivism and determinism, which in his opinion, obscure the true content of all three methods. The author explored a number of theses and texts of Castoriadis, in comparison with the texts of some representatives of Marxism (Plekhanov, Lenin), existentialism (Sartre), and structuralism (Lévi-Strauss, Althusser, Foucault). Leaning on the study of the evolution of French postwar thought, the author draws the independent conclusions on Castoriadis’ methodology. The scientific novelty consists in the attempt to portray Castoriadis as a unique reformer of the philosophy of history. The philosopher manifests not only as a consecutive critic of Marxism, existentialism and structuralism, but also as an independent thinker, who revived the dwindling interest towards the philosophy of history. It is underlined that the works of Castoriadis represent a cycle of studies on the philosophy of history; and in the center of the living historical process is collective creativity, the “magma” of social reality and social imaginary.
.. - EIGHTH CHALLENGE OF THE MILLENNIUM? PART 2. Exhalation of Black Holes as Transition from Light Matter into Conditions of Non-Participation of Dark Matter (On the new philosophical categories of participation and non-participation)


: In that previous article, emptiness (space) was considered as a state of substance within which other substances are transformed matter and field. In turn, matter and field form from the emptiness (energy).In the present paper, we consider matter and field (the micro world, macro world and mega world) as existence in our world. Non-existence in our world is existence in another world, for example, dark matter and dark energy. This means that, possibly, the exhalation of black holes is a transition of existence and certainty of our light Universe into non-existence in the form of non-participation. However, this non-existence is a form of existence of dark matter and dark energy which do not participate in the processes of light matter. There is a window of interaction in the form of gravitation between light matter and dark matter. However, it is possible that there is another window the transformation of the matter-field of the light Universe into non-existence, that is, the existence of dark matter and dark energy. Dark matter is a state of non-participation with light matter that is, with our light Universe. And vice-versa. The existence of dark matter and dark energy, which are non-existence in our world, transform into existence in our light universe by birth of a matter-field of emptiness. This means that through the exhalation of black holes there is a permanent shrinking of the density of light matter, which at the same time increases the emergence of light matters/ matter-field in the center of the galaxy or through other means. We hope that this can be observed in light matter that is, in our Universe. The mass and energy of our light universe are both growing and shrinking simultaneously. We hope that this can be observed through scientific observation.To be a phenomenon within this Universe means to be in unity with its distinctness as manifestation and part of its distinctness. Every thing in this world is in interaction with other things, and in contact and out of contact. This is the general participation all things with each other in the processes of one another. Distinctness of this world in all its unlimited diverse manifestations, is only in this way, not any other way, another distinctness may be nothingness, the non-existence this world. The unity of this distinctness consist in that every thing, every object of this world may come into contact with any other thing.
.. - The metaphysics of man: images of being


: The subject of study are human images that have taken shape in modern philos-ophy. The author proceeds from the assumption that the human image might be regarded in two dimensions: as human (human subjectivity) and as superhuman or meta-physical, manifested at various levels of his being, namely, semblance (possible being, being-as-seen) and seemingness (conditional being or being-as-if, pseudo-being as dis-tinct from true being), the objectively essential (whatness) and the subjectively essential (whoness). The metaphysical image proper that fixes the relationship with the transcen-dental world the true-essential, is differentiated into authenticity (self-being) and oth-erness (other-being). In his study, the author is guided by the methodology of existential phenomenol-ogy. From this viewpoint he offers his interpretation of the phenomena of human exist-ence expressed by the notions semblance and seemingness, whatness and whoness, authenticity and otherness. The novelty of this work is in revealing a metaphysical dimension of human being that hides behind the layers of the properly human human subjectivity, which is characterized by the tokens of thinking, freedom, creativity and reflexivity. At the latent level, the human image is expressed in terms of possible and conditional being. These, however, are but approaches to the main point. There is another essential level in the human being, which expresses his/her metaphysical essence other-being.
Faritov V.T. - Philosophy of transgression: Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Nietzsche c. 36-67


Abstract: The subject of this research is the conception of the philosophy of transgression in the teachings of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel and Friedrich Nietzsche. The author examines the fine concepts of Hegels philosophy such as spirit, otherness, sublation, and negation, and carries out the explication of transgression as the ontological content of these phenomena. The article presents a comparative analysis of the works of Hegel and teachings of Nietzsche in the area of establishment of the philosophical paradigm of transgression. A special attention is given to the issues of death of God in the philosophy of Hegel and Nietzsche. The research employs the methodological principles of deconstruction, comparative philosophy, as well as methods of ontology and history of philosophy. The scientific novelty of this work consists in the explication of transgression as the key aspect in the Hegels and Nietzsches teachings. Authors special contribution consists in conducting a comparative analysis of transgression in Hegels philosophy with the main sections of Nietzsches teaching (such as Dionysian origin, overman (Übermensch), and death of God).
Gurevich P.S., Rudneva E.G. - The apophatic project of man c. 68-97


Abstract: The article deals with the apophatic interpretation of man that has taken shape in modern Western literature as negation of all known attributes and properties of Adam’s offspring. The main proposition of new apophaticism, according to the authors, is disappointment in man. He is no longer considered as a measure of all things, as a creature endowed with reason and morality, as an exponent of humanistic consciousness. Human characteristics acquire a negative arrangement. Man is the focus of sinful thoughts, cruel desires, nearly the whole anatomy of destructiveness. Man’s essence is found in his striving for death. In this context, there is a need for comprehension of this tradition, which, as appears, to a considerable extent is inherent in European philosophy in some form or another.The authors are guided by philosophical-anthropological approaches to interpretation of human nature. They use the methodology of classical and postmodernist philosophy.The novelty of the work is in description of the apophatic image of man that has taken shape in modern philosophical anthropology. Conceptions of F. Nietzsche, G. Bataille and other authors are analyzed. The notion of human nature and human integrity is discussed. Human integrity is not rejected by modern philosophical anthropology, neither is it postulated as a preset anthropological property. It is acquired through the incoherence, fragmentariness of human existence. As is shown, the failure of the enlightening model of the ideal man in European culture has caused an irresistible interest to negative, pathological traits in human nature.The authors come to the conclusion that the apophatic project of man has permitted to reveal many real problems of current human existence. At the same time, it turned out that man has an inherent secret desire to rid himself of the idea of his existence, of his essence. The very reproduction of man as a human being is being ousted by machines, clones, prostheses. J. Baudrillard in this context writes about the end of anthropology, which is surreptitiously withdrawn by machines and new technologies.
.. - The cybernaut as a symbol of the global world


: The author discusses anthropological aspects of modern globalization. He shows that comprehension of global processes requires analysis of the problems of human nature. An attempt is made at creating a generalized image of man that will be a symbol of the nascent world. On the other hand, the author criticizes the projects of deanthropologization, debiologization of man. Traditional questions of philosophical anthropology, such as is man a creator or a creation?, who or what is the demiurge of the modern world?, is the human body really a basis for human identification?, is human nature capable of extreme openness and infinite transformation?, prove to be topical again. The author uses the method of philosophical anthropology to analyze these problems. He shows that this philosophical trend, for the decades of its existence, has improved its approaches to the issues of philosophical comprehension of man and is based on these original traditions. The novelty of the approach is not related only to restoration of the mystical tradition of remaking man but also to critical consideration of the whole European experience of reconstruction of the personality. The article evaluates the technical project of remaking man from critical positions, sets forth arguments that permit to rationally approach the problem and its basic foundations.
.. - Legal development in the context of the humanization of the Russian legal system.


: The subject of this research is Legal Development. The article discusses legal development in terms of the development of legal ideas about humanism by individual humans and society in general. Legal development includes human actions of intellectual and volitional nature mediated by the Law aimed at the transformation of elements of human activity (social reality). We are talking about humanization (spirituality and transformation of welfare) by means of human rights and society; the creation of a legal system, the center of which is a man, his rights and freedoms. Legal development is intellectual and volitional actions mediated by rights, aimed at the conversion and humanization of the legal system, the substantiation of the value of a person, ones rights and freedoms in the legal system. Research methodology is rational and critical thinking in the context of universal values, natural rights and freedoms of people. The novelty lies in translating the ideas of humanism in the Law, the transformation of the individual, society and the state in terms of legal ideas of human development by the individual and society. In law, the ideas of humanism are formed as a gradual change in the ratio of such concepts as rights and man. The idea lies in the humanization of the Law, establishing such a legal system, which would be focused on people, their rights and freedoms.
.. - New physical picture of the world? - Part 1. Redshift galaxies should fluctuate. Universal homeostasis. The absurdity of the basic question of philosophy


: The proposed approach is an attempt to significantly update the new physical and philosophical view of the world, primarily astrophysical. The key to this is recognition of the ideal as an attribute of matter, along with the material. The ideal is an objective reality, sometimes in the subjective form, but not a material reality. The material is defined as such not only due to what relates to the matter, but due to the fact that the material as one of the attributes of matter is determinate being. At the same time the ideal as a determinate being is not defined. This article proposes to consider homeostasis as a universal phenomenon. It should be noted that in real nature there are no perfect lines or askew movements. Real objects in their motion in a straight line always experience fluctuations influenced by the environment, e.g. due to association of an object with other objects, and internal movement. Every movement is unique, unrepeatable, has it own logic, and this logic is ideal, essential, natural. The same applies to the planet Earth, the Sun, galaxies, etc. that are subject to the principle of universal homeostasis. Homeostasis as a dynamic equilibrium is always a deviation - comeback. All things and objects, shifting from one bias sometimes in the opposite direction, now and again return to the ideal positions. There is no ideal stability, only a dynamic balance motive sustainability. But not materially, materially the balance is the essence of deviations-comeback. The ideal in homeostasis covers all the condition of the material as a whole, consistent and inconsistent with it. Ideal trajectory or positions sought by the objects in the process of universal homeostasis are not only the fact of consciousness of a cognoscitive person, but are also objective and real. Dialectical approach, Materialism, Structuralism, Comparative method, Systemic and organismic approach, Functional method, Cloning method in cognition, Methods of induction and deduction, Method of inverted hierarchies, when ultimate event determines the processes while individual phenomena affect key factors. Figuratively speaking, the Universe thanks to the universal homeostasis expands and quakes as a jelly. And the farther away the galaxy moves, the greater the rate of expansion and the stronger oscillations. Any real movement - inertial or accelerated - is uniformly uneven (material - ideal). The farther away a galaxy the greater is the amplitude of oscillation of both transverse and longitudinal. Longitudinal oscillations of flying galaxies occur in acceleration waves: now more expedited departure, now slower acceleration. In a sense it is similar to jerks. In our opinion, one can double check through oscillations (colour) of the redshift (colour) of Doppler effect. We believe it will be available for practical science. We could rely on the idea that every universal law of the Universe was there since its inception. Therefore, science faces the problem of detecting redshift oscillations. Rapidly receding galaxies oscillate around a receding ideal point of balance. Galaxies are tangible as an available existence and present an uneven acceleration flying away from one other. Consequently, one can assume that balanced ideal oscillation points obey some global law of uniform accelerating of ideal motion of galaxies. Hence the conclusion: Doppler effect should be addressed in the context of steady-unsteady motion redshift oscillations.
.. - New (physical) picture of the world? - Part 2. Expansion of similarity as a category of philosophy, Universal Law and Universal Form of Matter in Motion


: Author considers that with the expansion of a similarity certain objects turn other objects into their likeness. It is manifested in space and time. Expansion of similarity occurs in the process of stability of things, phenomena, when an object retains its likeness. In addition, there is an expansion density when a second-level expansion occurs - uniformity of different scales. It is an expansion of religions, communism, democracy, and so on. Author emphasizes the attention on next. However, in a true democracy everyone has the right to refuse to be the likeness of others. But not in respect of democratic laws and human lifestyle. A man has to be like others in exercising democratic laws and rules of humanity. The article concerns such topics as: Nobody has the right to forcibly turn others to his likeness, unless it jeopardizes security through the system of violence or genocide. Motion of uniformity is one of the most important forms of motion of the matter contrary to its other form - constant generation of innovations, diversity and differences. Motion of uniformity has at least three "sleeves": expansion of similarity, reflection as a universal property of matter and invariance, philosophically perceived as preservation of uniformity in various systems, transitions and dimensions. There are many forms of expansion of similarity: social contagion, fascism or totalitarianism and others. In the theory of reflection, developed in the twentieth century, we come across with a more or less passive reflection of some phenomena by others, which is why the researchers sought to specifically identify the active substance of reflection as universal properties of the matter. It was not incorporated in the concept of reflection. Concept of reflection initially had no idea of creation and "aggression", had to be supplemented in theory. The methods of the research are the following: dialectical approach, materialism, structuralism, comparative method, systemic and organismic approach, functional method, cloning method in cognition, methods of induction and deduction, method of inverted hierarchies, when ultimate event determines the processes while individual phenomena affect the key factors. The novelty of the problem is that the concept of expansion of similarity is introduced for the first time and is regarded as a universal category, universal law of existence and universal form of matter in motion Author concludes that the novelty of the problem is that the concept of expansion of similarity is introduced for the first time and is regarded as a universal category, universal law of existence and universal form of matter in motion. The article for the first time describes the logic of alliances and associations based on similarity of subjects and people. It takes place in nature as well, when communities of such objects and phenomena emerge. There is a fundamental law of existence that reflects essential commitment of phenomena to create systems similar to it or to continue own similarity. Science has known many scholars that studied similarity of phenomena, the relations of identity and difference, replication and difference. However in this aspect, motion of similarity as unfolding in space and time, in a variety of scope and depth, the concept of similarity expansion without doubt must find mathematical, astrophysical, in other word, natural science aspects through identification of specific laws and relations. The main thesis of the author is next. The concept of expansion of similarity more fully reveals essential aspects of democratic process, and identifies specific properties of extremism and fundamentalism, in other words, their "bloody mutation", regardless of their political colour. Giordano Bruno most vividly and selflessly defended cognitive cosmological principle, which concept is determined by the expansion of similarity - the entire infinite and yet to be better cognized Universe is similar to the universe seen to us. Expansion of similarity is manifested as a method of cognition and principle of determinism.
Ursul A.D. - Global studies and evolutionary approach


Abstract: The present article examines the intense and clearly defined process of globalization of science, which is part of the global revolutionary transformation unfolding in all spheres of human activity. It scrutinizes the global trend of development of modern science, and particularly global studies. The latter focuses on the research on global processes and systems and the related systems synergetic phenomenon the global development. This trend in global research results in the emergence of a specific form of the interdisciplinary scientific knowledge, which is termed as global knowledge. This type of knowledge displays all global processes and systems that exist and develop on the planet Earth, from the perspective of the planetary integrity and evolutionary significance.Particular attention is paid to the methods and approaches used in global studies, i.e. evolutionary and interdisciplinary approaches and those related to spatial and temporal extension of the global research subject field.There was made an attempt to apply the integrative scientific methods and concepts in order to drive the emergence of some new global research areas. The use of the evolutionary approach in global studies, which was recently proposed by the authors of this article, gave them an opportunity to give birth to the new research fields, such as paleoglobalistics, cosmoglobalistics, futuroglobalistics and other areas. So-called evolutionary global studies is supposed to develop in line with an interdisciplinary approach to the study of global processes and systems in their evolutionary aspect. Above all, this development will unfold on the basis of the global (universal) evolutionism findings. It is expected that there will come a new - "evolutionary" - stage of global knowledge development, which will, in its turn, constitute the main subject of global development studies.
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"History Illustrated"