SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences - Political science



SENTENTIA. European Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences
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Political science
Popova S.M. - Seeking the models for State-building in post-crisis societies: some theoretical approaches and Russian experience of the late 1990s, early 2000s c. 1-10


Abstract: The article discusses the problems associated with the search for effective models and strategies of State-building for post-crisis societies. As is well known, the international community supports the processes of democratic transformation in various countries, as well as provides assistance in resolving conflicts. It is assumed that the efforts of such international assistance should result in a stable State. However, the history of the late XX early XXI centuries showed that the use of a democratic (Western) model for non-Western cultural context does not guarantee successful state-building. The phenomena of the 'failed state' and the 'fragile state' have become widely known.The paper proposes some theoretical approaches to be taken into account when choosing a model of State for post-crisis societies in order to avoid the risks of statehood failure.The author analyzes the successful Russian experience in the late 1990’s – early 2000’s of implementing 'tailor-made' models of State at the regional level, taking into account the diversity of the political, cultural, and socio-economical context of post-crisis societies. The higher efficiency of specialized models in comparison with universal models is demonstrated.
Filipović A. - The influence of right-wing populist parties upon the national policies towards the Russian Federation: the case of the Progress Party (Norway) and the Danish Peoples Party c. 1-35


Abstract: The aim of this research is to determine the degree of influence of the Progress Party (Norway) and the Danish People’s Party upon their national governments’ policies towards Russia. The Progress Party was a member of Norway’s government coalition from 2013 to 2020, while the Danish People’s Party provided support for Danish coalition governments from 2015 to 2019. The analysis of the parties’ origins, ideologies, political programs and policies more accurately explain their stances on Russia, as well as determine the levels of their political will to be involved in influencing governmental policies towards it. Methodology applied in this research consists of content analysis, which was used in the research of the official documents of the Progress Party and the Danish People’s Party; comparative analysis, which was used in the analysis of political programs of both parties, as well as various election results and other relevant data. It can be concluded that both parties have insignificant influence upon their respective governments and state policies towards the Russian Federation. Additionally, both have expressed lack of political interest for establishing Russia as the focal point in their foreign policy programs. By being neither Russophilic nor Russophobic in nature, their presence in the government was not a cause for either degradation or improvement of relations with Russia.
Brambila Martinez F. - The role of international organizations, transnational governance, metrics and indicators of the quality of government activity within the framework of global governance c. 1-5


Abstract: This article examines the current role and mechanisms of international organizations in assessment of the quality of global governance. The subject of this research is the assessment and indicators of state participation in the development and implementation of transnational governance. The goal lies in the analysis of the concept of governance through the prism of the Fukuyama-Manning theory. Globalization is viewed in the economic and political dimension to determine the need for creating the transnational administrative framework. The results of global governance in the form of assessment and indicators of the quality of state administration are explored in the context of correlations between the production and demand of political indicators, their nature and practical advantages. The author analyzes the existing hypothesis on the role of international organizations within the system of global governance to outline the prospects for transnational governance. The detailed theoretical and practical approach towards assessment and metrics of state administration is realized via qualitative analysis for determining the prospects for the standardized system. In conclusion, the author emphasizes the equal importance of governance, globalization, and state policy for achieving the functional structure of global governance. This article represents the conceptual framework for the study and development of the systems for evaluation of the government performance to ensure successful intergovernmental cooperation in the globalization era.
Filipović A. - Vaccine diplomacy during the COVID-19 pandemic on the example of the Republic of Serbia c. 1-16


Abstract: The scale of the global COVID-19 pandemic is unprecedented. The COVID-19 vaccines have not only become an indispensable weapon for countering the pandemic, but also are the attribute of technological and scientific prestige of the countries that developed the vaccines. Although the term "vaccine diplomacy" is not new, it may have become much more relevant during the global pandemic. The goal of this research lies in the analysis of vaccine diplomacy of China, the European Union, and the Russia Federation with regards to the Republic of Serbia during the global COVID-19 pandemic. Description is given to the Serbia's participation in the own vaccine diplomacy on the global scale. The novelty of this research consists in comparative analysis of the efforts of "vaccine diplomacy" of the EU, China, and Russia towards Serbia. The research provides the latest results of the survey on the topic of Serbian citizens and their perceptions of foreign aid received during the COVID-19 pandemic. The conclusion is made that medical aid rendered by China and Russia to Serbia was well received by the Serbian government, government-aligned mass media, and society. However, the financial and medical aid provided by the European Union was neither significantly advertised by the media, nor changed the attitudes of Serbian society towards the EU. At the same time, the Serbian government has engaged in the own vaccine diplomacy in order to strengthen ties with the former allies of Yugoslavia from the Non-Aligned Movement.
Tatlioglu E. - Turkish-Russian Relations within the BSEC c. 1-7



Abstract: The article provides a brief analysis of the history of development and the current state of the Russian-Turkish partnership within the framework of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation Organization, which can be considered a functional area of cooperation that uses the convergence of the countries of the region by creating cooperation on various issues, such as the production of energy from underground resources of strategic importance for the region, agricultural production and tourism. In addition to this, the Black Sea Economic Organization is of notable importance in terms of sustaining stability in the region due to addressing the growing security concerns in the Black Sea region. The concept of a global security threat changed shape with the end of the Cold War. This led to a change in the view of international organizations on defense and allowed a focus on increasing the level of stability through the global policy of cooperation organizations created for security and economic purposes. The article also describes the measures and results of the two countries to ensure the fuel and energy balance in the Black Sea region, steps to reduce political tension associated with Turkey's participation in a strategic partnership with the EU countries, key projects in the fuel and energy sector. It should be noted that the identity of the historical destinies of Russia and Turkey, their historical and cultural role of the "East" in the West and "West" in the East, the unique geopolitical position, geographical proximity contribute to the strengthening of economic, political, cultural ties between Russia and Turkey.
Maier M.D. - The impact of certain aspects of international criminal justice upon interdependent processes of democratization and reconciliation in Bosnia and Herzegovina c. 6-21


Abstract: It is difficult to assess the processes of democratization and reconciliation in post-conflict societies. The factors that affect reconciliation are yet to be fully determine in the academic literature. It is also unclear to what extent each element may promote or obstruct the reconciliation process. The author explores the interrelation and interdependence of the concepts of democratization and reconciliation on the example of the post-conflict region of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and focuses on the impact of international criminal justice upon the processes of democratization and reconciliation. The article covers the current political situation in Bosnia and Herzegovina, as well as assesses the performance of the institutions of international justice, such as the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. The author believes that the literature missed so factors that may contribute to reconciliation. An assumption is made that released prisoners may influence the reconciliation process, and this should be viewed as a separate and crucial sub-factor of the consequences of international criminal justice. The author recommends to use all available information and carry out quantitative research in the affected region, assessing public opinion with application of a more nuanced approach towards differentiation of the aspects of international criminal justice. Analysis is conducted on the limited impact of international justice upon the reconciliation process. A hypothesis is advances on interrelation between the aforementioned sub-factor and the processes of reconciliation and democratization.
Degterev D.A., Timashev G.V. - Concept of Multipolarity in Western, Russian and Chinese Academic Discourse c. 9-20


Abstract: The key research focus of the article is the emergence and further development of multipolarity concept in International Relations academic discourse in the United States, Western Europe, Russia and China. Initially the term was rooted in Western IR school and was elaborated as an attempt to counter-balance USSR in the context of bipolar world. The article also covers the modern practice of using multipolarity discourse in Western international political science. Particular attention is paid to the formation of the concept of multipolarity in the Russian Federation and in the PRC in the post-bipolar world. Academic discourse of multipolarity is presented in close link to the practical dimension of the foreign policy concepts of the countries mentioned in the study. The re-emergence of multipolarity was closely associated with changes in the balance of power and an attempt to overestimate the role of superpowers in the world. The consistent development of the theoretical basis of the concept was carried out until the end of the Cold War in the framework of the Western school of IR. In Russian and Chinese studies, multipolarity mostly acts as an image of the desired world order. In recent years, a number of Western scholars have recognized the objective nature of a multipolar world and the need for strategic adaptation to its realities.
Sanusi H.A. - Diplomatic methods of conflict resolution: on the example of Ghana c. 12-17


Abstract: Since the moment of its establishment, the United Nations (UN) acted as a guarantor of peace and stability in the world. According to the UN Charter, the member-states are obliged to contribute to the collective security mechanisms, adopted by the organization as the means for maintaining global peace and security. This article examines the place of peacemaking in foreign policy of the Republic of Ghana, as well as analyzes the experience in peacemaking activities. The subject of this research is the conflict resolution between the countries through diplomacy. The author considers Ghana’s experience in peacemaking activities, as well as the importance and problem of peacemaking in its foreign policy. Special attention is given to Ghana’s contribution to provision of military and civilian personnel with the UN peacemaking operations. In the course of this research it is demonstrated hoe the smaller players such as Ghana applied the method of soft power for achieving some of their foreign policy goals. The peacekeeping operations in Ghana are sponsored by the United Nations.
Varakina M.I., Trofimova E.S., Levchenko Y.A. - The Formation of national idea of Chinese environmental culture c. 12-19


Abstract: The article explores the formation of new environmental culture that promotes positive spiritual transformation of a person. The analysis of Chinese environmental culture demonstrates that in the center of environmental-ethical system of Confucianism is the social man, successor of the environmentally ethical behavior. China’s future is impossible without sustainable development of the society, where positive environmental imperatives play a substantial role. The paper describes the role of the Chinese leadership in formation of the new radical and global policy that imposes new demands upon social thinking, problems of environmental development of society, and new environmental strategy. The acquired results and data indicate that the problem of overcoming environmental crisis can be resolved through the formation of environmental culture, since it absorbs all material and spiritual values created by man in the process of socio-natural interactions.
Uvarov A.A. - On the state and trends of development of civil society in Russia c. 13-23


Abstract: This article analyzes the issues pertaining to participation of citizens in the work of the civil institution. Attention is given to the level of demand for various social formations among citizens, as well as motivation of people’s participation in them. A special attention is allocated to the prospects of development of various models of civil society in Russia and issues of formation of middle class, called to become the social foundation of the civil society. The statistical data on the state of the civil society in Russia testifies to the loss of influence of the formalized structures of civil society upon the citizens. This trend is further aggravated by the state’s imposition of the so-called pseudo structures of civil society, which introduce typical bureaucratic flaws of the state apparatus. There are additional independent problems in form of uncontrollability and irresponsibility that also arise. The author proposes original legal approaches towards solution of the issues of debureaucratization of the civil society and development of promising and demanded vectors of its development in Russia, which include volunteering, philanthropy, and work of socially-oriented nonprofit organizations (NPOs). Author’s separate proposals and assessments pertain to the role and importance of the informal manifestations of civil society.
Malashevskaya M.N. - Establishment of the model of positive bilateral cooperation in the Russia-Japan dialogue after the end of the Cold War: analysis of negotiations tactics in the 1990s c. 17-31


Abstract: This article analyzes the establishment of mutually beneficial model of the dialogue between Russia and Japan in the context of implementation of new negotiation tactics on the bilateral level in the late XX century. Particular attention is given namely to the tactics that are considered as the basis for the formation of partnership between the countries since the end of the 1980s. Intensification of the dialogue between Russia and Japan in the 1990s contributed to alignment of the parties in seeking the grounds for the development of mutually advantageous relations. The application of the instruments of face-to-face negotiations and informal meetings can be viewed as an indicator of alignment of the parties, a desire to propel the bilateral cooperation to a fundamentally new level, which is proven by the provisions of the “Moscow Declaration on the establishment of a constructive partnership between the Russian Federation and Japan” of 1998, which has become the framework for collaborative actions in the new century. The article discusses the most common tactics and methods applied in the negotiations between Russia and Japan, although its it not an exhaustive list of all possible techniques. The scientific novelty consists in systematization and description of the tactics of Japan’s diplomacy that were practically implemented in Russian in the 1990s and remain relevant to the present day. Personal contribution of the politicians and diplomats into creation of the foundation for multidimensional cooperation between Russia and Japan was of crucial importance. Analysis is conducted on the activity of Japanese diplomats Tamba Minoru, Edamura Sumio, Togo Kazuhiko, as well as politicians Nakayama Taro, Hashimoto Ryutaro, Obuchi Keizo, and Mori Yoshiro, who played the role of the political architects in Tokyo with regards to Russia. The works published by them are a valuable source for the analysis of the events under review.
Shapkin M.N. - The Islamic vector of Kazakhstans development; the Turkish factor c. 18-26


Abstract: This article presents the analysis of Kazakhstans role in the weightiest of the international organizations, built upon confessional principle and the principle of unity of Turkic countries. The role of these organizations gains a special significance in the conditions of the new geopolitical realities of the global and regional development. The prospects of development of the Islamic vector of Kazakhstan are being examined in the context of the prospects of its impact upon the Russia-Kazakhstan relations. Unlike other regional development projects of the largest geopolitical players such as China and the United States, the Turkish strategy bases itself on the cultural and historical component, aimed at unification of the Turkic people and preservation of the civilizational unity. The scientific novelty of this research consists in viewing Kazakhstan and Turkey as a new alternative integration core of the Eurasian space. The main result of the research is the substantiation of the needto account not only for the pragmatic economic factors in structuring the strategy of the Russia-Kazakhstan relations, but also the cultural, civilizational, and religious aspects.
Sokolovskiy K. - Relevant questions regarding the revival of religiosity in Kazakhstan: state, confessions, society c. 21-28


Abstract:  The rapid modernization of Kazakhstani society at the turn of the XX and XXI centuries became the cause for the unique “religious renaissance”. However, the spiritual resurgence emphasized the issues that Kazakhstan had not faced before. The article examines the peculiarities of the resurgence of religiosity in the Republic of Kazakhstan during the period of 1990-2000’s , attempts to analyze the reasons of extensive desecularization, unprecedented increase in the amount of followers of one or another confessions (including the new religious movements), as well as identify the challenges of statehood in this regard. The use of comparative method alongside the empirical and theoretical analysis, allows clarifying relatively to the phenomenon of high dynamic of the resurgence of religiosity, considering such incidents as the civic religiosity and construction of religiosity. The attention is also given to the problem of impact of the competent government authorities upon the confessions in the context of the declared separation of church and state, as well as measures taken by the government to establish the system of state-confessional relations that is able to counter the current challenges, under the circumstances of growing religiosity of population and broad polycultural field. 
Amuhaya C.A., Moraru N. - Moral dilemma of the European migration security: case study of migration flows for the period of 2015-2019 c. 21-30


Abstract: Whenever any state’s sovereignty is threatened, its first instinct is to protect itself. In 2015, the European Union was in the limelight, recording unprecedented numbers of migrants and as a result, refugee camps deteriorated to deplorable conditions. Illegal migration is perceived as a security threat in Europe; states were forced to take measures that compromise the very foundation of the European Union. Their politics suddenly became fuelled with anti-immigration sentiments, anti-immigration operations and agreements between the EU and migrants’ countries of origin were drafted and signed, tougher border security policies were put in place, such as erection of fences. All these measures resulted in the number of illegal migrations to fall to their lowest levels in 2019. This article will analyze Europe Union’s foreign policy on illegal migration between 2015 and 2019 while highlighting the extreme measures that some states within the EU took to mitigate migration. In doing so, it will highlight the moral dilemma posed by many Human Rights Organizations, putting into question Europe’s moral compass that it is known for. A conclusion is made that in matters of security, states are willing to take a moral background in order to safeguard its security and position in the global system.
Kovalev D.V. - The Dominant Party and transformation of the Russian multiparty system in the early XXI century c. 25-29


Abstract: The subject of this research the transformation of party system of the Russian State due to emergence of the dominant party – “United Russia”. Special attention is given to such aspects of the topic as changes in the electoral and party legislation, as well as the correlation of political forces at the level of representative bodies as a result of the rapidly increased influence of the “party of power” and its enhancing control over the system of public administration. The author focuses on the assessment of V. V. Putin's consolidating role in unification of the largest sociopolitical organizations of centrist orientation. The study carries a historical-political character, as well as leans on the interdisciplinary approach towards analyzing the phenomena and processes in political life of the Russian State of the early XXI century. The scientific novelty lies in the author's attempt to determine and describe the factors that substantiated the long-term dominance of the “party of power” within the Russian state political system throughout the first decade of the XXI century. The dominant position of the “United Russia” is associated not as much with the traditional to Russia use of administrative resource, but the peculiarities of political culture of the society, characterized by a relatively high level of preferences in favor of the ruling elite.
Filina A.D., Tretyakova G.V. - Economic cooperation of Canada with Asia-Pacific countries in the energy sector c. 26-30


Abstract: The article is devoted to an urgent problem of our time - the integration of Canadian energy markets into the energy markets of the Asia-Pacific region. Canada's economy is currently the 16th largest in the world in terms of GDP and is heavily dependent on international trade, whose prosperity is inextricably linked to external markets and the ability to access those markets. In turn, China, Japan, and South Korea are the world's largest importers of crude oil and liquefied natural gas. The study considers not only the reasons for the need of Canada's energy markets to enter the Asia-Pacific region, but also analyzes the dependence of the Canadian economy on the economy of the United States of America. The main conclusions of the study consist in outlining the ways of integrating the energy markets of Canada and the Asia-Pacific countries. The built economic model of interaction should not only exist within the framework of the created legal acts but also should determine the importance of the formation of this economic institution for subsequent development. This work is of particular relevance due to the fact that joint development within the economic area creates a stable relationship, which can later be used for external use, within the framework of building a new type of economic model. Thus, the information acquires statistical value and can be used in further research. The author believes that the goal of this research is achieved by considering the economic cooperation of Canada with the Asia-Pacific countries in the energy sector.
Lyubarev A. - Is there logic in the legislative regulation of the candidate registration based on electoral signatures c. 27-34


Abstract: This article explores the positions of Russian electoral legislation that regulates candidate registration and electoral list based on electoral signatures. It is noted that as a result of an unsystematic amendments to the electoral legislation that took place in the recent years, this legislation has lost its internal logic. The author thoroughly researches the practice of candidate registration and electoral lists at the regional and municipal elections over the recent years. It is noted that in accordance with the legal position of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation, the purpose for the candidate registration system and electoral lists is to only allow candidates that have a sufficient support from the electorate. The author compares the norms of the electoral legislation on the mandatory number of signatures for registration and not requiring separate political parties to collect signatures for elections of various levels. The comparison reveals lack of logic in establishment of norms pertaining to the rules of candidate registration and electoral lists. Analysis of the registration process and electoral lists on the regional and municipal levels confirms that the registration system based on signatures does not carry out its constitutionally important function:it leads to exclusion of candidates that have voter support, but at the same time allows candidates that then get low results. The author proposes series of measures for restoration of normal political competition at Russian elections.
Di Gregorio A. - Rule of law crisis in the new EU Member States c. 28-41


Abstract: The paper analyses one of the hot topics of the constitutional debate in Europe, that is democratic backslidings in some new EU members States. This is a problem not fully studied by Russian political science and legal doctrine. Although many works in the international literature have been devoted to this subject, a general analysis of the political and constitutional causes of this regression is lacking. The innovative features of the article includes: an outline of the characteristics of the transition to democracy in the Central and Eastern Europe;the European Union ‘rule of law’ mechanisms and their failure, comprised the failure of the system of democratic conditionality; the cultural and constitutional framework of the new EU member states, including some defects in their constitutional engineering. The author uses the legal comparative method, which comprises also a historical approach with many political implications.
Naryshkina M.V. - Social tension in Zabaykalsky Krai as a factor of political risk in work of the United Russia political party c. 28-37


Abstract: The subject of this research is the social tension and protest activity as a factor of political risk in work of the “United Russia” political party. The article provides various interpretations and characteristics of the term “social tension”. Special attention is given to the events that took place in Russia over the recent 2-3 years and significantly affected the escalation of social tension and protest activity in the country, as well as the regions (annexation of Crimea and Sevastopol, sanctions against Russia, implementation of “Plato” system, etc.). The author also examines the socioeconomic situation in Zabaykalsky Krai (late salary payment, unemployment, inflation, and others) as a factor of political risk in the work of regional branch of the “United Russia” party. The conducted analysis allows concluding that among the substantial consequences of economic crisis and dissatisfaction of population with actions of the authorities lies in the rating downgrade of the “United Russia” political party, escalation of protest moods and social tension, changes in electoral behavior. According to the results of the research, Zabaykalsky Krai has a much broader potential for the protest activity, if compared to the nationwide. The currently established socioeconomic situation in Russia and Zabaykalsky Krai is one of the factors of political risk in work of the “United Russia” political party and its regional branch.
Potseluev S.P. - Historical memory in the context of Russian nation-building (based on the regional survey) c. 29-40


Abstract: The subject of this article is the problematic role of historical memory in the formation of Russian national identity. The author examines in detail the phenomenon of historical memory, distinguishing its social kinds (individual, collective, and cultural memory) and discursive forms (living, objectified, and organized memory). Using the material of survey of Don students (in comparison with the data of similar surveys conducted by Public Opinion Foundation and the Levada Center), the author analyzes the students' evaluation of the key and controversial events of the Soviet past, such as the October Revolution, industrialization and collectivization, collapse of the Soviet Union, and others. Moreover, the article discusses the role of the aforementioned evaluations with regards to students’ attitude to the «Crimean Spring» and the unrecognized Donbass republics. The theoretical-methodological basis of this research lies is the constructivist concept of historical memory developed in Russian and foreign science. The empirical basis is provided by the results of survey conducted in 2014-2016 by the research organization of Southern Federal University and Southern Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences within the framework of academic project dedicated to examination of far-right ideologemes in the consciousness of student youth of Rostov Region. The scientific novelty of this study implies the systematization of various types and forms of historical memory. The author constructively applies the difference between the «cold» and «hot» strategies of historical memory in order to assess the politics of memory in post-Soviet Russia. In this regard, the author criticizes the postmodern absolutization of the myth in the construction of national memory, as well as indicates the need for implementing the strategy for “processing the difficult past”. The article provides new arguments favoring the thesis that the Russian society (including student youth) has a request for a stronger rehabilitation of the Soviet period of Russian history than the current official politics of memory. The materials and results of this research can be valuable for optimization of the indicated politics.
Brambila Martinez F. - The promising role of international institutions and production of knowledge in the globalization era c. 29-34


Abstract: This article explores the promising role of modern international organizations in the production of knowledge applicable to the context of globalization and global governance, as well as the required framework and mechanisms. The subject of this research is the mechanisms of international organizations, namely OECD, in the production of knowledge used within the system of global governance. The goal lies in the overview of worldwide demand for knowledge in the context of Dolowitz-Marsh approach for assessing the prospects for the knowledge offered. The capabilities of OECD as the central standardized think tank, combined with the role of NGOs within the system of global governance, allows activating bilateral relations and transnational governance. The author analyzes the existing hypothesis about on capability of the international organizations to produce knowledge in the era of globalization; as well as examines the mechanisms of OECD and other NGOs for to outlining new horizons and actions with regards to providing a wide range of government institutions with the effective instruments. Thus, nationalization of the results of the policy indicates a comprehensive internal analysis based on the international standards that reduce the role of political interference in the outcome. The role of international organizations in the production of knowledge opens new horizons for the country to broader interaction between all interested parties based on the results of activity, simultaneously ensuring standardized interaction and practice on a bilateral basis. The article describes the capabilities of centralized, results-driven production of knowledge, as well as the prospects for extensive international cooperation and accountability of the governments.
Diansaee B. - Irans role in the crisis Middle East: the factor of relaxation of sanctions on the nuclear program (2015-2017) c. 30-35


Abstract: The subject of this research is the analysis of the key factors affecting the formation of foreign policy of Iran in the Middle East in the context of their solution to the problem of regulation of Iran’s nuclear program and application of sanctions. Special attention is given to the examination of the threats to Iran’s security and regional stability in the situation following the relaxation of sanctions and settlement of the Syrian conflict. The author explores the key components of the foreign policy strategy of the Islamic Republic of Iran in the Middle East region, as well as with regards to the allied states. The article underlines that after the talks on the Iran’s Nuclear Agreement that took place between Iran and P5+1, as well as signing the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (2015), Iran did not changed their regional strategy. Author’s special contribution into the research of this topic lies in the fact that despite some short-term consequences, which unfolded in the region following the conclusion of the JCPOA, this agreement is still not a decisive factor that defines the vector of regional transformations. In the long-term perspective, the situation in the Middle East and Iran’s role therein will be determined by both, the domestic conditions and regional trends, as well as the factor of international involvement into the regional process.
Gbadebo A. - The impact of Afrocentrism upon Nigeria's foreign policy: since attainment of independence to the present day c. 30-41


Abstract: The foreign policy of Nigeria has indisputably proven some homogeneity with the concept of Afrocentrism. Facts have shown that the country’s foreign policy has been very consistent in considering Africa as a centerpiece in spite of successive administrations and the varied systems of government it has experienced. The author outlines the principles and objectives embedded in the policy from the time of the first Prime Minister Tafawa Balewa who ruled since 1960, when Nigeria gained independence from the United Kingdom, to the present administration of President Muhammadu Buhari, due to the country’s committment in contributing to Africa’s development. In this accord, Nigeria has clung to the strong holds of self-determination and self-government relationship with other countries, both regional and sub-regional. Having adopted the policy of non-alignment, Nigeria has stood in resistance to the external influence while maintaining diplomatic relations with them and concentrated on the integration of African countries. At the period of the country’s shift from Afrocentrism as core to its foreign policy to the direction of “Citizen Diplomacy” then to investment and economic co-operation, Nigeria never lost focus on African unity, economic diplomacy and decolonization of neighboring states. The present article reveals the details of Nigerian foreign policy, its influence on the country itself and Africa as a whole.
Hussein D.J. - Theoretical approaches towards the steps of nongovernmental actors in world politics: global paradiplomacy of the Iraqi Kurdistan (KRI). c. 31-41


Abstract: This article presents a theoretical approach towards the global political steps of non-state actors. Particular attention is given to a number of theories of international relations, such as neorealism, international liberalism, and constructivism, which are able to encompass current global actions of non-state political actors. For a clearer perspective on the subject matter, the article employs the example of Iraqi Kurdistan (KRI); as a non-state actor, KRI has recently become a vivid example for the theories of international relations. The conclusion is made that security, economy, culture, religion and identity are the key and post powerful instruments of non-state actors of international politics. The example of KRI demonstrates that international relations of non-state actors focus on security, economy and culture, as well as serve as the instruments of interaction with both, state and non-state actors. The article reviews such activity within the framework of neorealism, international liberalism, and constructivism. It is underlines that the example of Iraqi Kurdistan (KRI) fully meets all the criteria of a non-state actor of international politics. It is also a brilliant example for the theories of international relations.
Kovalevskaia N.V., Tikhotskaia M.A., Shevchenko Y.N. - Digital geopolitics in the regional context: certain challenges and prospects of the European Union on the path towards information sovereignty c. 32-44


Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic and coronacrisis have clearly exposed the strong dependence of modern companies on the approaches towards data management, stability of information networks and digitalization, as well as significantly strengthened the assertion of the Europeans in the need to achieve strategic autonomy with regards to development of the own digital solutions. The article aims to determine the place of the European Union in the international information and communication space in the context of global data management policy. Research methodology leans on the principles of the multi-paradigm method used for extrapolating some provisions of Robert Gilpin’s hegemonic stability theory on the modern technological competition among the countries on the international arena within the framework of regional approach. The article examines the term “information sovereignty” based on the principles of international law in a constantly changing international environment. The research addresses such documents as “New Industrial Strategy for Europe”, “European Data Strategy”, and the decision of the European Court of Justice concerning the Transatlantic Privacy Shield Agreement. As an example of the European digital policy, the author examines the ambitious GAIA-X project intended to create an open digital ecosystem and develop common requirements for the European data infrastructure. The article formulates the recommendations aimed at ensuring effective management in the digital sector, and offers the model of multilateral participation, which would allow reaching information sovereignty based on the European values and ideals.
Gbadebo A. - Analysis of Nigerias foreign policy with the European Union, France and Germany: A narrative. c. 34-40


Abstract: Traditionally, the relationship between Nigeria and Western countries is rooted in their long-standing economic ties, political and other common values its people share, coupled with Nigerians in the Diaspora and western businesses established in Nigeria. Since its independence in 1960, the African giant has strategically made contacts with many international organizations to help maximize its foreign policy potentials. Nigerian foreign policy gives much credence to the European Union as a strategic partner and an opportunity for her to capitalize and define a feasible cooperation policy framework for its cooperation with Europe, based on values and interests that unite Nigeria and members of the European Union. It seeks to analyze how such foreign policy manifest into Nigeria's potentials in trade cooperation and development at large.
Yatsenko I.A. - The main trends in modern Russian political process and ways of achieving political order c. 35-45


Abstract: The object of this research is the political process of modern Russia. The subject of this research is the key issues of the political process in modern Russia and the management techniques for the purpose of its institutionalization. The subject is being explored not only from political and sociological perspectives, but a special attention is also given to the philosophical component of this issue. The author determines the key issues of the modern Russian political process and its trends. The work includes results of the latest scientific research in this field and offers various positions of specialists in this area. The author highlights the factors that affect the efficiency of institutionalization. As the basis for ensuring decrease in transaction costs of the institutionalization process, the author proposes a mechanism for inclusion of potential of the indirect political actors into the system of government administration.
Poungchingngam K. - Political cooperation between Thailand and Russia: current trends and issues c. 35-50


Abstract: This article analyzes the political cooperation between Thailand and Russia over the period from 2014 to the present. The concepts of national interest, balance of powers, and neoliberalism are used as the analytical frameworks. The current bilateral cooperation is characterized by positive dynamics in the political sphere as it appears from the visits of the heads of government since 2015. These visits led to the advancement of all-round cooperation for both countries. However, the political ties have not yet reached the optimal level, and mutual cooperation between the two countries faces certain challenges. The main conclusion lies in determination of the issues in relationship between the countries: 1) political instability in Thailand affects the cooperation; some changes that took place in the Thai government between 2006 and 2014, as well as internal problems entailed by the coup d'etat, influenced its foreign policy. The author indicates that the key factors that affect Russia-Thailand relations are the political and diplomatic mechanisms. High-level visits and bilateral discussions contribute to strengthening of ties between the two countries. However, for further development of the relations, Thailand must resolve its domestic issues.
Brambila Martinez F. - Sino-Russian relations as a deterrent factor of the G2 conflict: prospects and policy recommendations c. 37-46


Abstract: This examines promising directions in Sino-Russian cooperation as a deterrent factor of multidimensional confrontation in the G2 format. The subject of this research is modern and advanced mechanisms of cooperation of geostrategic importance between the two countries, adapted to the global requirements. The goal of this work consists in the review of the common pursuit of the nations for more equal distribution of global power in the aftermath of American hegemony as a result of global trade. The emergence of new regional actors and their ability to operate on the global level and beyond the ideological constraints is analyzed through the United States-China relations, promising trade agreements of China with the European Union and Russia. The author considers the existing hypothesis on the prospects of concentration of regional power and emergence of new actors. The modern forecasts regarding the future of Sino-Russian cooperation are compared with geostrategic approach on the basis of the national interest and sovereignty of the countries in the absence of sound ideology for the purpose of conceptualization of future scenarios and mechanisms for prevention and settlement of conflicts. In conclusion, the author underlines the common pursuit of Sino-Russian cooperation for achieving the objectives of geostrategic nature, which constitutes the dynamic foundation for more equal distribution of world power. This article provides an actual approach towards future globalization scenarios, which would assist to prevent and resolve the conflicts using innovative models of international cooperation in the globalized region.
.. - New Research Paradigm in Political Science


: The subject of the article is the paradigm that presents an innovative approach to studying politics in the context of political integrity and the relevant political system. This is a paradigm that defines the nature and direction of research on politics. Its content and conclusions are based on research into the structure of the political reality. This research is aimed at discovering the components of this reality, and providing an understanding of their details and purpose, and of their interconnections and interdependencies. As a result, we provide conclusions on the requirements for further analysis of the systematic elements of political reality, for the future systematization of existing political knowledge, and the development of theory.The methodology of the research is based upon understanding the essence and existence of different types of politics, and the place and role of politics in society. This methodology consists of a number of ideas. One of these is that politics is considered to be a specific public activity, which is created by, functions as part of, and plays a leading part in, social management. The leading part that politics plays is to define the direction of executive activities, which influences social management itself and the activities of the managing instrument.Another important concern is the analysis of how a specific type of politics can, by its very nature, develop the political system. This refers to government policy, which, as an independent component within the structure of a government, represents a significant issue when research of any political reality is carried out. This is an element of politics that has been developed by a government over a long period of time, so that, today, it is characterized by a high level of complexity and development. It is in this context that certain laws of politics are being recognized and interpreted. Therefore, government policy, being an instrument of management, provides a fundamental back-drop to any research into politics. The third idea relates to the development of the political structure, which influences the direction of political analysis. It is a well-known fact that the division of a whole entity into parts, and the study of the separate elements, is a universal principle of learning about anything. This is the principle that is used in many different sciences; and its importance has been repeatedly demonstrated in research. This is the principle that provides the basis for explaining the structure of political reality, and, above all, that defines the logic of political theory development, and, therefore, of the whole study of politics. The division of politics (i.e. political reality) into separate components is a unique philosophical technique that creates the necessary conditions for the understanding of politics, and, as a result, contributes to the further systematization of political knowledge.The innovation of the research lies in the way that it reveals the structure of political reality, as represented by a political system that is characterized by components that are independent, yet at the same time interconnected. The political system divides political reality into its component parts, which are united, directly connected and correlated, but also different from one another.Analysis of the political system recognizes three elements of political reality, which relate to the most common political phenomena and represent methods due to their contents. These are: political life, political influence and political culture.Political life relates to the independence of politics; it is part of the functionality of the political organism. Politics cannot exist and fulfill its purpose without the functionality of its organism. Therefore, political life, as with any life, is connected with the political organism. Political life may be defined as an aspect of political reality that is based on the functionality of the political organism. In fact, the essence of political life is associated with the structure of the relevant political organism, and is defined by the organisms components. For instance, under a democratic regime, political life consists of, first of all, a number of political relationships, above all the relationship between the government and the opposition, which are the fundamental components of the political organism. Political life also consists of the interconnections that constitute the system of this organism (the political system).The purpose of political life, as a component of political reality, includes providing a medium for the formation of polycies. Based on the existence, and the functionality, of political life, decisions are made, and thus conditions are created for the role of the politicswithin the social management system, i.e. pre-formation of political influence. This is its specific role within the political structure.Another aspect of political reality is political influence, which relates to the political purpose of the social management tool. Unlike political life, political influence is affected by the overall mission of the politics. Political influence is derived from the adoption of government resolutions, and relates to the fact that, through these resolutions, executive actions and the whole essence of management are defined. Political influence is a component of political reality that defines the direction of executive activities.Political influence as a term, and as an entity, has not been studied in the political studies, and that is why it requires special consideration. It devours the instrument and the direction of this influence and recognized by means of more frequent phenomena such as, for instance, the political regime and the political process. When defining the direction of executive activities, political influence is the main instrument of social management, and one on which other functions within the system depend. Because of the part that political influence plays, it is characterized as a primary type of political reality.Another element of the political structure is political culture, which influences the way in which political power is used, and thus the way in which political life and political influence are implemented. Basically, this refers to the order of implementation, which is defined through the means by which political power is used, and represented by protocols for adopting government resolutions. Political culture is an aspect of political reality that is associated with the rules for the adoption of government resolutions. This aspect of political reality may be characterized as being technological.The essence of each of the above elements of political reality is defined through the combination of other, more specific, political elements, which together form particular groups. Each of these elements is related solely to its own group of the political elements. Political life develops as a function of influences which include political relations and the political system, which characterize the functionality of the political organism. Political influence is implemented through the political regime and the political process, which define the instrument and its means of influence. Finally, political culture is defined by the means by which political power is used, and is represented by protocols for the adoption of government resolutions. For instance, democratic political culture is associated with the adoption of government resolutions through polling which is based on the majority principle. As a result, it is noted that the new research paradigm can be used in the study of a number of aspects of political science, which are fundamental to political knowledge. The new paradigm also lays the foundations for the establishment of relationships and hierarchy between them.
Hussein D.J. - Hydrocarbons support the global diplomacy of the Kurdistan Region c. 47-62


Abstract: This article empirically examines the competition of the world’s counties for the establishment of their diplomatic relations with non-state actor. It is underlined that the government of the Kurdistan region, which has used “soft power” to draw attention of the states. Among other tools, hydrocarbons (oil and gas) placed the main soft power policy of the Kurdistan government for its global movement. It is proven that the economic and hydrocarbon ambitions have led states to overpass their traditional understanding of global diplomacy; and this further inspires some of the previously antagonistic states to reshape their relations with non-state actor towards considering a close partner. The drawn conclusions correlated with the idea that the Kurdistan government would be more actively involved in the global diplomacy due to its oil and gas wealth.
.. - Armed rebellion in Ukraine could be the last wake-up call to Russia


: Today the attention of the world is focused on the events in Ukraine. Cruelty and uncompromising in struggle having overgrown in a time so short from separate clashes of hooligans and police in organized armed rebellion can not be ignored - street fighting in the capital of the neighboring state, where representatives of the Slavic people inextricably linked historically with the Russian people take their part, can not but disturb the public, government and the leadership of the Russian Federation. Ukrainian nationalists balancing on the edge of ramming attack put on the acting government call the events "revolution", though in fact it can be considered only as a coup, armed rebellion to seize power, well known in the present-day world under the common title "a color revolution". And its not just a random conclusion: in the Ukraine events we can discern signs all of us had met with in color revolutions in the CIS, Georgia, Central Asia, in the orange madness that spread over the Ukraine at the beginning of the two thousands, as well as during the recent revolutions of the Arab Spring.
Mustapha M., Agyei S. - Assessment of the impact of new media and political news channels in West Africa: the case of Ghana and Nigeria c. 51-55


Abstract: Rapid technological changes that take place in recent years affect all aspects of life. The emergence and popularization of the Internet is one of the examples of how people get access to political information and news. Previous research were focused on examination of the impact of media upon the audience, or people’s distrust to new media. The online quantitative study that involved 199 respondents from Ghana and Nigeria revealed that many people read political news online, or sometimes listen to the radio in these two regions. Print media received the lowest rating, as people’s interest in it declines. The conclusion is made that the population of Ghana and Nigeria tend to read new media for political news compared to mainstream media. Therefore, mainstream media should invest adequate resources to improve their online presence and the quality of their news content. It is indicated that new media is currently the number one tool worldwide of enticing people to protest against government policies that they believe would have negative consequences for their lives. It is shocking that the majority of respondents claimed that they watch political news on TV, compared to minority who listen to radio. The authors’ special contribution lies in determination of the most frequently used means of political communication among the residents of West African countries.
.., .. - The Matter of Legislative Definition of Political Activities in the Russian Federation


: This article substantiates the necessity of legislative definition of the term political activities and the presence thereof and the legal grounds for its implementation in the legislation of the Russian Federation.Attention was drawn to the downsides by which political activities are defined in the revised Federal Law of the Russian Federation, dated 12th January 1996 No. 7-FZ On Non-Commercial Entities. The authors believe that it is necessary to change the way of defining the extent of the political activities meaning and propose, above all, to include the activities of political figures and other persons whose actions in political relations are of a professional nature. These persons must be reflected in the law of the Russian Federation on political activities, as specific managers thereof. This is supported by a number of political figures of Russia. Facts and information on the legal regulation of political activities in the USA and the UK were provided in the article.The authors provide a comprehensive definition of the political activities and reasoning thereof, state general types of political activities, and provide regulations associated with the legal regime for the purposes of its execution.They propose the legalization of lobbying activities in Russia, due to the fact that it is an extremely important type of activity.It was noted that the supervision over the elections was only executed by the professionals in election law and voters behavior; and by means of conflict management they can optimize the election process in Russia, but in order to do so, these persons must be provided with the status of managers of political activities.The article was written using a considerable amount of the regulatory documents and other information sources. As research methods, the authors used: (a) the examination of the regulatory and legal instruments and legal literature; and (b) the legal evaluation of the provisions regulating political relations in Russia and other countries.The authors proposals in relation to the definition of the term political activi-ties, the extent of the meaning thereof and legal grounds for its implementation are well-reasoned and may be used in the lawmaking process of the Russian Federation.
Dadabaeva Z.A. - Transformation processes in Central Asia on the background of intraregional conflicts


Abstract: This article explores certain problems within the current processes of regionalization in Central Asia as a means of self-identification of the region in the new conditions. The different starting potential for economic development among the newly independent states has predefined the strategy for forming intergovernmental relations. A special attention is given to the analysis of the political situation in the region after collapse of the Soviet Union in the context of problems concerning disputed territories and questions of the use of water resources of transboundary rivers. Unfair (in the opinion of the countries of Central Asia) division of state borders demarcated during the Soviet era still prevents the regional neighbors from structuring an adequate relations. Territorial conflicts often result in armed clashes. The water-energy resource is another important factor of cooperation in Central Asia and often leads to an open confrontation between the states of the upper reaches of the transboundary rivers and the countries of the lower reaches concerning the use of the hydroelectric potential. The article implements factor analysis and interdisciplinary approach in studying the intraregional conflicts regarding the use of water resources of the transboundary rivers. The author reviews various attempts of intergovernmental collaboration and the causes that stand in the way of these processes. The article reveals the negative role of the border, energy and water conflicts within the regional cooperation. Researching the processes of transformation in Central Asia allowed the author to determine that the political and economic development of the countries progresses unevenly, and forms on the background of objective and subjective factors. The low level of intraregional cooperation outside integrational unions leads to economic and political dependency of each of the countries upon the influential global players.
Akopov G.L. - Hacktivism a challenge to national security within information society c. 70-80


Abstract: This article examines the issues of cyber threats and cyberterrorism. The explanation for this phenomenon is the dynamic information-communication development of the modern society. The article examines the factors that gave rise to cyberterrorism. A special attention is given to the so-called hacktivists those who commit acts of cyberterrorism without financial gain, but rather to support their political ideas; a number of specific examples of hacktivist activity are being presented. As a result, the governments today are forced to concentrate harder about creation of a cyber-shield to ensure information safety. Among the main conclusions the author substantiates the need to place cyber security as the corner stone of every nation. To ensure information and cyber security and counteract these threads, the author recommends forming cyber forces based on scientific brigades.
Trofimov E.A. - Transformation of the passive electoral right in the Russian Federation after the protests For Fair Elections of 2012


Abstract: This article examines the transformation of the passive electoral right within the Russian Federation after the acts of protest “For Fair Elections”. The author highlights that the transformation of this right retained its centralized vector, imitating the democratization of the electoral system. The analysis of the legislation and the political practice demonstrates that the limitations of the Russian citizens’ passive electoral right contradicts the norms of international law and the Constitution of the Russian Federation; in the area of political practice they infringe upon the essential principles of electoral right, including government non- involvement into the electoral process and equality of the voters. The mass protests of 2011-2012 did not produce changes, nor gave the citizens the opportunity to be elected as officials of the branches of government, and were further restricted by additional limitations that have a significant impact in the area of the selective functions of the government. The electoral system of the Russian Federation continued the transformation in the direction of interests of the federal president and the highest government bureaucracy, which leads to a collapse of the feedback system, degradation of Russian politeia, and imitation of the right to be elected.
Starkin S.V. - United States military strategy concepts with regards to China c. 81-108


Abstract: The coming shifts in the regional military balance away from the United States and its allies towards China can lead to a deformation of the American containment policy. The goal of this article, which represents a logical continuation of a number of other works of the author on the problems of regional security in the Asia-Pacific Region, is the analysis of Washington’s main military strategic approaches with regards to the People’s Republic of China and forecast of the development of military political situation upon the mid-term prospects. A number of American experts claim that in an event of a military conflict the United States will have no choice but to dominate the military forces of China and neutralize its ability to restrict and prevent access to separate territories, blocking of certain zones and maneuvers within them (concept A2/AD), using a number of offensive and defensive means, including targeting objects on the territory of China with non-nuclear force. The author comes to the conclusion that American policy-making, headquarters, and expert-analytical structures are conducting a targeted work, aimed at maintaining their influence in the Asia-Pacific region.
Bajrektarević A. - Eastern Europe The Worlds Last Underachiever (All displayed maps per the authors idea made by Anneliese Gattringer


Abstract: This study concerns the development of the Eastern Europe and its current geopolitical status. The political study is undertaken of the example of the after WWII development of this region. Cultural, social, economical and political aspects of the Eastern Europe and its contemporary development are taken into consideration. An important part of the study concerns current Ukrainian crisis. The evolution of the role of the NATO in Europe is described and taken by the author as one of the major causes of the current crisis in Ukraine . Author depicts current development of the eastern Europe as Ukrainization or Pakistanization. Author argues that Ukraine and Europe became a hostage of the US’s aggressive politic. Author also points out that by annexing Crimea Moscow showed to US and Europe that Ukraine is an emotional place for Russia – tied to it by a bond of historio-civilizational attachment – something that makes and sustains Russia both Christian and European
Uldanov A.A. - Protest public as a source of civic initiatives: on the example of mass protests in Russia 2011-2012 c. 109-134


Abstract: The subject of this research is the phenomenon of protest public in the context of its effect the establishment of public civic initiatives in Russia. In the modern society, one of the causes for public gathering is protest. It is the correlation between public gathering and protest activity, with emergence of public civic initiatives within it that becomes the object of author’s research. On the example of mass protests in Russia during 2011 and 2012, the author makes an attempt to characterize Russia’s protest public and determine the level of its effect upon the formation of new or support of the old civic initiatives. The methodological base for this work consisted of neo-institutional approach, and systemic analysis of the theoretical sources. Empirical foundation for this research is built on the data from social polling and materials of applied research on the protests of 2011-2012. Emergence of the public allowed realizing the attempt for basic request of solution to pressing issues. Despite the certain level of the diversity in its participants and inconsistency of this public, we can still underline the important result of its actions – civic initiatives that have formed within the protest public, which allowed to partially get around the closed nature of Russia’s political system. The author comes to a conclusion that in the conditions of lack of channels for influencing policy, realization of alternate initiatives that are formulated based on the realistic request of the citizens, rather than the will of the branches of government, remains one of a few mechanisms of public politics within the country.
Vernichenko M.A., Shevlyakova O.N. - Cultural and Historical Foundations of the American Political Science: Russian perspective. c. 121-141


Abstract: The article is devoted to the study of historical, socio-cultural and national peculiarities conditioning the priorities and methods of American political science, its investigation paradigms. The major focus in the article is made on characteristic features of American political culture the most significant being the two-party system, the thesis of the exclusiveness of the American way that the nation lives by, the consensus political orientation in domestic life, which rests on the idea of self-reliance, a firm belief of the Americans in their mission of proliferating American values and the ensuing priorities in the international policy of the country. The questions of the Russian political science and prospects for its development are also being discussed. The research is based on methodological principles of the new institutionalism, political comparative study, historical analysis. No other science is so closely linked to actual politics, business and education as American political science, this fact securing its special place in the Western science. The most characteristic feature of this science is its pragmatism used to serve the tasks of political problem-solving and the ensuing bonds between the science and government organizations and funds of business structures. The singularity of the American political science comes from specific geopolitical, historical and cultural conditions. It is this science that has given rise to original theories and paradigms widely used in Europe. They could be useful for the Russian political science as well.
- .. - Political image of the EU in the context of global economic crisis


: Global economic crisis has become one of the biggest challenges in the history of the EU: it has put under a question mark the relevance of the European project not only from the economic but also from the political perspective. In current conditions the EU faces double challenge: the actor must not only emerge from the crisis, it should also restore its image, gain trust of own citizens and make them believe that the European project faces an optimistic future. To reach these objectives, it is necessary to establish an efficient system of communications, aimed at restoring trust to the European project among European citizens (internal communications), as well at enhancing the reputation capital of the EU as global political and economic actor (external communications).Current article examines the components of European image discourse including ways of possible image discourse transformation in crisis situations and proposes a theoretical approach for creation of a crisis response model aimed at restoring damaged internal and external image of the EU. Structural analyses of the European image, discourse analyses of the EU imageand its transformation process in a crisis situation. One of the key tasks for the EU is to make the process of the image discourse transformation in crisis situations manageable. To achieve that the EU should develop a flexible and comprehensive internal and external communication system which would make it possible to minimize the devastating influence of a crisis and keep the reputational capital of the EU among the target audiences (the EU citizens and the world community) on a high level.
Maslanov D.V. - President and Russians: foreign view of the attitude of the population of post-Soviet Russia towards its presidents c. 142-155


Abstract: This article focuses on the issue of the attitude of the population of the post-Soviet Russia towards its presidents in the context of the theory of transitional democracy. The research on the political development of the nations with the transitional type of democracy, with Russia being regarded as one of them, holds a special place in the world political science. The peculiarities of the public opinion of the forming Russian democracy also did not escape the attention of the foreign sociological research; as a result, on the example of the little-studied surveys of public opinion, conducted by foreign authors, the author reveals their view on how the population treats the office and the persona of the president, and what effect they had upon the development of the countrys political system. This article analyzes the foreign research conducted in cooperation with the Russian institute of sociology (Russian Academy of Science), surveys by Pew Research Center, and others. The main result of the research is the introduction into the scientific use of a number of little-studied foreign researches, which confirm the foreign idea that the transition of democracy in post-Soviet Russia has created a hybrid state (hybrid regime, authoritarian democracy, electoral authoritarianism). In addition to that, the presented opinions and results of the research can be considered in structuring long-term image strategies by the Russian government.
Bajrektarevic A. - Europe of Sarajevo 100 years later: Was history ever on holidays? (From WWI to www. 9/11 or 11/9?)


: Some 20 years ago the genocide of worst kind was taking place just one hour flight from Brussels. That time, assassination of different kind from the one of 1914 has enveloped Sarajevo. While massive European ignorance turned Bosnia (and the Union of different peoples Yugoslavia) into a years-long slaughterhouse, the Maastricht dream was unifying the Westphalian world of the Old continent. Today, two decades later, Atlantic Europe is a political powerhouse (with two of three European nuclear powers, and two of five permanent members of the UN Security Council, P-5), Central Europe is an economic powerhouse, Russophone Europe is an energy powerhouse, Scandinavian Europe is a bit of all that, and Eastern Europe is none of it. No wonder that as soon as serious external or inner security challenges emerge, the compounding parts of the true, historic Europe are resurfacing again. Formerly in Iraq (with the exception of France) and now with Libya, Sudan, Mali and Syria; Central Europe is hesitant to act, Atlantic Europe is eager, Scandinavian Europe is absent, Eastern Europe is bandwagoning, and Russophone Europe is opposing. Did Europe change (after its own 11/9), or it only became more itself?
Bajrektarevic A.H. - Asia needs ASEAN-ization not Pakistanization of its continent
Why is (the Korean peninsula and East) Asia unable to capitalize (on) its successes


: The author tried to discover why is Asia (nonetheless its economic success) unable to capitalize on its successes. Author thinks that no Asian century will emerge with deeply entrenched divisions on the continent, where the socio-political currents of the Korean peninsula are powerful daily reminder that the creation of such a pan-Asian institution is an urgent must. Unsolved territorial issues, sporadic irredentism, conventional armament, nuclear ambitions, conflicts over exploitation of and access to the marine biota, other natural resources including fresh water access and supply are posing enormous stress on external security, safety and stability in Asia. Author affirms that what China needs in Asia is not a naval race of 1908, but the Helsinki process of 1975. In return, what Asia needs (from China and Japan) is an ASEAN-ization, not a Pakistanization of its continent. Author points out that ASEAN might be the gravity center of the consolidated diplomatic and socio-political action, and a place of attraction for many Asians in the decade to come
.. - THE THIRD WAVE: Geopolitics of Postmodernism


: An article is devoted to the new geopolitical conception, constructed on the base of V. Stepin's ideas of post-nonclassic conception, the theory of self-organizing systems of H. Haken, a technology of controlled chaos by S. Mann and authors synergetic vision of modern geopolitical trends. The world community has entered an epoch of permanent crisis which is represented now as the system crisis of postmodern civilization. The sociopolitical tendencies designated during revolutions in the Middle East and North Africa, a series of "color" revolutions on the post Soviet space and protest actions of Russian opposition, put forward an actual problem of development of a new toolkit for research of processes of political transformation of the modern world. In these conditions the issue of the day is still the problem not only of interstate relations, but also situation inside the states that become closely connected in globalized world. The favorable environment for occurrence of threats to the international and state security is the use of technologies of "controlled chaos, strategies of "soft power and indirect actions on the background of aggravation of territorial, demographic, religious, ecological, food and water problems in large territories of the Central Asia, Near and Middle East and African continent.
Philippov V.R. - Uranium factor in Frances foreign policy towards Africa


Abstract: Use of the comparative political analysis allowed the author to identify certain trends within France’s foreign policy towards Africa of the beginning of this millennium. Analysis of the geographic localization of the expeditions of the French armed forces into Africa confirms the fact that the Élysée Palace initiated the peacekeeping and humanitarian interventions within the territories of the sovereign nations of the Dark Continent whenever France faced a serious threat to their energy security. The threat to the interests of the French state corporation AREVA, which specializes in recovery and refinement of uranium ore, was always followed by operations of the special services and military interventions in Niger, Mali and the Central African Republic. The methodological basis for this research consisted of the systemic, structural-functional, comparative-historical approaches, methods of analysis, synthesis, observation, and modeling. The author substantiates the opinion according to which the rapid escalation of the competitiveness and the African uranium markets, emergence of new players in these markets, first and foremost China, prompts France to resort to various forms of political and military pressure (from political assassinations and incitement of confessional and tribal conflicts to direct military intrusion) upon the political elites of their former colonies. A conclusion is made on the fact that it is the direct dependency of the French nuclear power plants, and therefore the whole French economy, upon the African uranium defines the main vector of the Africa policy of the Fifth Republic.
Bajrektarevic A. - The Caspian 5 and Arctic 5 Critical Similarities


: While the worlds attention remains focused on Ukraine, Crimea is portrayed as its hotbed. No wonder as this peninsula is an absolutely pivotal portion of the Black Sea theatre for the very survival of the Black Sea fleet to both Russia and Ukraine. In the larger context, it revels the old chapters of history books full of overt and covert struggles between AtlanticCentral Europe and Russophone Europe for influence and strategic depth extension over the playground called Eastern Europe. However, there are two other vital theatres for these same protagonists, both remaining underreported and less elaborated. Author brings an interesting account on Caspian and Artic, by contrasting and comparing them. He claims that both water plateaus are of utmost geopolitical as well as of geo-economic (biota, energy, transport) importance, and that Caspian and Arctic will considerably influence passions and imperatives of any future mega geopolitical strategies far more than Black Sea could have ever had.
.. - Strategies of indirect actions, soft power and technologies of


: The article is devoted to analysis of formatting of political spaces instrumentations by means of strategies of indirect actions and technologies of operated chaos for organization of "colored revolutions" in the post-Soviet space and in the Near East region. Characteristic feature of the beginning of the XXI century is a critical dependence of state institutes stability on application of information-network technologies for destruction of bases of statehood which allow to solve political problems in a mode of transformation of social-political system of the country without application of armed forces and destruction of its economic potential only by means of influences on a moral and psychological condition of its population. Methodological basis of the research constitute systematic, structural-functional, comparative historical, comparative political, geo-political, cultural and civilizational approaches, methods of analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, modeling, observation. The main feature of globalization is fast development and distribution of information technologies and social networks that become favorable environment for distribution of different information among the people and play an important role in initiation of protest movements in countries with severe economical and political problems
.. - Convention on the international legal status of the Caspian Sea a treaty that would determine the fate of the region


: This article examines the issue of international legal status of the Caspian Sea. It is first and foremost the issue of rights to the area and resources of the Caspian Sea. It is also the matter of national security for all Caspian bordering countries. This has become a key concern for the five Caspian Sea nations for over 20 years. The method of this research is the legal comparative analysis of the multilateral agreement that was supposed to solidify the maritime borders of the coastal nations. Despite the fact that this treaty was proposed as a multilateral agreement, or as a declaration, it ultimately pursued a precise goal: to define the maritime boundaries, rights and responsibilities of the coastal nations and therefore, divide the extensive natural resources of the Caspian Sea. The conclusion is that there is yet to be a resolution reached on the subject of the international legal status of the Caspian Sea. Acceptance of the Convention is expected to take place during the fifth summit of the leaders of Caspian nations, which should take place in Kazakhstan. This multilateral document will finally resolve the age-old question: is the Caspian a sea, or a lake?!
.. - Political regimes of the post-Soviet states of the Central Asia and Caucasus


: The subject of this research is the political regimes of the post-Soviet states of Central Asia and Caucasus. The author gives an in-depth analysis to the typology problems of the modern political regimes and the methodological aspects of measuring the regime dynamics. Special attention is given to the issue of operationalization of the proposed concepts and review of empirical data, which can objectively reflect the character of the political regimes. The author claims that the measurement of these two parameters: level of competition among the elites and the degree of influence of informal practices within the political process, represents the most relevant assessment of the regime forms of the post-Soviet states. A synthesis of two theoretical concepts is used in this article. It offers the typology of the political regimes, developed upon the electoral and neopatrimonial approaches. By combining the two basic variables (level of competition and the autonomy of the elites) six possible regime types are determined: atomized particularism, sultanism, neopatrimonial authoritarianism, neopatrimonial polyarchy, institutionalized authoritarianism and institutionalized polyarchy. For the offered criteria of the assessment of the regimes, the author formulates a method of operationalization using the data from the electoral statistics and indexing the levels of corruption. The regime dynamics of the post-Soviet Turkmenistan is presented in the article as a demonstration of the practical implementation of the developed typology.
NotaBene / Aurora Group s.r.o.
"History Illustrated"